Bradley's Criteria for Assessing Levels of Reflection1
- Gives examples of observed behaviors or characteristics of the client or setting,
but provides no insight into reasons behind the observation; observations tend to
become dimensional and conventional or unassimilated repetitions of what has been
heard in class or from peers.
- Tends to focus on just one aspect of the situation.
- Uses unsupported personal beliefs as frequently as "hard" evidence.
- May acknowledge differences of perspective but does not discriminate effectively
- Observations are fairly thorough and nuanced although they tend not to be placed
in a broader context.
- Provides a cogent critique from one perspective, but fails to see the broader system
in which the aspect is embedded and other factors that may make change difficult.
- Uses both unsupported personal belief and evidence but is beginning to be able to
differentiate between them.
- Perceives legitimate differences of viewpoint.
- Demonstrates a beginning ability to interpret evidence.
- Views things from multiple perspectives; able to observe multiple aspects of the
situation and place them in context.
- Perceives conflicting goals within and among the individuals involved in a situation
and recognizes that the differences can be evaluated.
- Recognizes that actions must be situationally dependent and understands many of the
factors that affect their choice.
- Makes appropriate judgments based on reasoning and evidence.
- Has a reasonable assessment of the importance of the decisions facing clients and
of his or her responsibility as a part of the clients' lives.
1 Steven Jones, . Introduction to Service-Learning Toolkit. Second Ed. Providence RI: Campus Compact, 2003. Print.