The CHP applies to personnel within a laboratory, shop or operating unit where hazardous chemicals are used or stored, or those whose work activities are research-related and involve hazardous chemicals. Use or storage of the hazardous chemicals must be consistent with "laboratory use" to be covered by 8 CCR §5191 and the CHP. "Laboratory use," means that:
- Chemical manipulations are carried out on a "laboratory scale".
- Multiple chemicals or chemical procedures are used.
- Activities are not part of or simulating a production process.
- Protective laboratory practices and equipment are available and in common use.
At a minimum, this definition includes employees who use chemicals in teaching and research laboratories or shops at Cal Maritime. Also, it is Cal Maritime policy that students in laboratories or shops, while not legally covered by this standard, are afforded the same level of protection as Cal Maritime employees.
It is the policy of the Cal Maritime to maintain a safe and healthy work environment for each employee (including student and contract employees), and to comply with all applicable occupational health and safety regulations. This Injury and Illness Prevention Program (IIPP) is intended to establish a framework for identifying and correcting workplace hazards within the department, while addressing legal requirements for a formal, written IIPP.
To assist Cal Maritime in providing a safe, compliant, environmentally sound, and more sustainable operation, each department or operational unit is expected to review, understand, and follow the guidance provided in the Injury Illness Prevention Program components and the and the function of the integrated campus safety management system (ICSMS) as related to operations under their control.
In a proactive behavior based environmental health and safety model that entire campus community participation reflects a process that embraces the ability to;
- Eliminate adverse conditions which may result in injury or illness,
- Recommend the establishment of programs to raise safety consciousness in the community, and
- Achieve and maintain a beneficial relationship through continuing communication on issues relating to environmental health and occupational safety.
Employees (Including Student workers)
Employees and other personnel who work in University facilities have the right to be informed about the potential health hazards of the chemicals in their work areas and to be properly trained to work safely with these substances. This includes custodial staff and other personnel who work to clean and maintain laboratories. Employees have the right to file a complaint with California Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Cal/OSHA) if they feel they are being exposed to unsafe or unhealthy work conditions, and they cannot be discharged, suspended, or otherwise disciplined by their employer for filing a complaint or exercising these rights. All personnel working with hazardous chemicals are encouraged to report (anonymously, if preferred) any concerns about unsafe work conditions to SRM at (707) 654-1076 or by using the online hazard report; "Report a Safety Concern" on the SRM website.
It is the responsibility of all faculty and staff to proactively participate and subsequently comply with all applicable health and safety regulations, Cal Maritime policies, and established safe work practices. This includes, but is not limited to:
- Observing health and safety-related signs, posters, warning signals and directions.
- Learning about the potential hazards of assigned tasks and work areas.
- Taking part in appropriate health and safety training.
- Following all safe operating procedures and precautions.
- Participating in workplace safety inspections
- Using proper personal protective equipment.
- Inform coworkers and supervisors of defective equipment and other workplace hazards without fear of reprisal.
- Reviewing the building emergency plan and assembly area.
- Reporting unsafe conditions immediately to a supervisor, and stopping work if an imminent hazard is presented.
Deans, Directors, Department or Operating Unit Management
Campus Department or Operating Unit Head leadership have an integral campus role and shall have a thorough understanding of Injury Illness Prevention Program components and the function of the integrated campus safety management system (ICSMS) as related to operations under their control.
- The Department Head has primary authority and responsibility to ensure the health and safety of the department's faculty, staff and students through the implementation of the Injury Illness Prevention Program components. This is accomplished by communicating the Cal Maritime's campus emphasis on health and safety, analyzing work procedures for hazard identification and correction, ensuring regular workplace inspections, providing health and safety training, and encouraging prompt employee reporting of health and safety concerns without fear of reprisal.
- Specific areas include employee and student (both student employees and students in academic programs) education and training, identification and correction of unsafe conditions, and record keeping. It is recognized that a substantial amount of responsibility falls at this level.
- Colleges and Departments are encouraged to designate an individual as the College or department safety coordinator, to assist with specific operational environmental health and safety process management components.
Supervisors and Principal Investigators
Supervisors play a key role in the implementation of the Cal Maritime's Injury Illness Prevention Program components. Supervisors may be Management, Senior Research Associates, Department Chairs, Principal Investigators, or others who oversee a project and/or staff. They are responsible for but not limited to:
- Communicating to their staff and students about Cal Maritime campus's emphasis on health and safety.
- Ensuring periodic, documented inspection of workspaces under their authority.
- Promptly correcting identified hazards.
- Modeling and enforcing safe and healthful work practices.
- Providing appropriate safety training and personal protective equipment.
- Implementing measures to eliminate or control workplace hazards.
- Stopping any employee's work that poses an imminent hazard to either the employee or any other individual.
- Encouraging employees to report health and safety issues without fear of reprisal.
Academic Programming Faculty and Advisors
It is the responsibility of Faculty, Academic Programming Advisors other Cal Maritime related activities and student clubs to:
- Develop procedures to ensure effective compliance and support of the Injury and Illness Prevention Program components as it relates to operations under their control. Specific areas of responsibility include student education and training, identification and correction of unsafe conditions, and incident reporting.
- Develop and maintain written classroom, laboratory, and activity procedures which conform to regulatory, campus and departmental guidelines.
- Instruct students in the recognition, avoidance, and response to unsafe conditions, including hazards associated with non-routine tasks and emergency operations
- Permit only those persons qualified by education and training to operate potentially hazardous equipment or use hazardous materials, unless under close supervision.
- Supervise students in the performance of activities.
Students are expected to always adhere to safety practices presented by faculty, technical staff, student assistants, graduate assistants or other authorized individuals. They must also report potentially hazardous conditions that become known to them. These reports should be made to their supervisors, faculty advisers, Department of Safety and Risk Management, or other responsible parties.
Chemical Hygiene Officer
The Cal-OSHA standard requires a Chemical Hygiene Officer be designated for each laboratory facility. This officer is qualified either through training or experience to oversee the development and implementation of the CHP. This designated officer may hold another job title provided he or she is technically competent to fulfill the responsibilities of both job titles. The Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO), is responsible for:
- Providing technical guidance and assisting the in the development and implementation of the Chemical Hygiene Plan.
- Assisting with the development and documentation of Safe Work Practices for the laboratory.
- Overseeing and arranging for the monitoring of worker exposures to hazardous materials as defined by the Laboratory Standard.
- Organizing the inspection of the laboratories for the purposes of identifying and facilitating necessary modifications/changes for continual compliance on an annual basis.
- Reviewing, the CHP annually with SRM Director and updating it as necessary to remain current.
- Work with the Department of Safety and Risk Management (SRM) to maintain current Material Safety Data Sheets for all chemicals and other hazardous materials inventory in Chemical Inventory System (CIS). And ensure related information is available to all employees and students at any time the lab is accessible.
- Coordinate the annual and periodic inventories of the chemical and hazardous materials storage area(s).
- Coordinate completion of the Laboratory Check-In and Checkout forms when personnel leave, or move into, a laboratory.
- Coordinate completion of the Laboratory Decommissioning Checklist when a laboratory space is decommissioned.
- Coordinate the completion and submission of the appropriate paperwork required for purchase, use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials.
- Coordinate hazardous materials disposal and complete associated documentation
The Facilities Department is responsible for:
- Reviewing and approving laboratory equipment installations for compliance with pertinent building codes and regulations.
- Maintaining and servicing facilities-related equipment which services laboratories including local exhaust ventilation systems and emergency/life safety equipment (e.g. building fire alarms and fire extinguishers).
- Providing guidance to Laboratory management, researchers, and the CHO regarding appropriate engineering control installations for chemical and physical hazards.
- Testing the performance of laboratory exhaust hoods annually.
Responsibilities for all personnel who handle dangerous or potentially dangerous chemicals. All personnel in research or teaching laboratories that use, handle or store potentially hazardous chemicals are responsible for:
- Reviewing, understanding, and following requirements of the: CHP; all applicable Safety Manual(s), Programs, and Policies; and any applicable individual Laboratory Safety Plans.
- Following all required verbal and written workplace safety rules, regulations, and SOPs.
- Developing good personal chemical hygiene habits, including but not limited to, keeping work areas safe and uncluttered, cleaning up following work activities, and practicing good housekeeping in the workplace.
- Planning, reviewing, and understanding the hazards of materials and processes in their laboratory research or other work procedures prior to conducting work.
- Utilizing appropriate measures to control identified hazards, including consistent and proper use of engineering controls, administrative controls, and PPE.
- Understanding the capabilities and limitations of PPE issued to them, and properly maintaining this PPE.
- Being prepared for laboratory accidents and knowing emergency response procedures.
- Gaining prior approval from the PI/Laboratory Supervisor for the use of restricted chemicals and other materials or equipment.
- Gaining prior approval from the PI/Laboratory Supervisor for the purchase of any new chemicals for the laboratory or research activities.
- Consulting with PI/Laboratory Supervisor before using higher risk chemicals (e.g., particularly hazardous substances, explosives and other highly reactive chemicals), or conducting certain higher risk experimental procedures. Notifying other laboratory members of the hazards posed by the chemicals/activities prior to beginning work.
- Immediately reporting all accidents, incidents (including near-misses), injuries, and unsafe laboratory conditions/activities to the PI/Laboratory Supervisor.
- Immediately reporting any fires or fire extinguisher discharge, even if the fire is extinguished, to the Fire Department and the PI/Laboratory Supervisor.
- Immediately reporting any new or previously unrecognized workplace hazards within their department to their PI/Laboratory Supervisor or SRM.
- Completing all required health, safety, and environmental training and providing documentation to their supervisor.
- Participating in the medical surveillance program, when required.
- Informing the PI/Laboratory Supervisor of any work modifications ordered by a physician as a result of medical surveillance, occupational injury, or exposure.
- Discussing with the PI/Laboratory Supervisor, and receiving prior approval for, any activities and procedures that are to be conducted while alone in the laboratory.
- When performing independent research or work:
- Reviewing the written plan or scope of work for their proposed research with the PI/Laboratory Supervisor.
- Notifying in writing and consulting with the PI/Laboratory Supervisor in advance if they intend to deviate from previously reviewed procedures (Note: changes may include, but are not limited to, change in the objectives, change in
- PI, change in the duration, quantity, frequency, temperature or location, increase or change in PPE, and reduction or elimination of engineering controls.).
- Preparing SOPs and performing literature searches relevant to safety and health appropriate for their work.
- Providing appropriate oversight, training, and safety information to laboratory or other personnel they supervise or direct.
- On termination or transfer of laboratory personnel, all their related hazardous materials (including chemicals and samples) shall be properly disposed, or transferred to the PI/Laboratory Supervisor or a designee, with the chemical inventory updated appropriately.
Chemical and Hazardous Material Purchasers
Chemical and Hazardous Material Purchasers includes any individuals that are delegated with the authority by department or operating nit management to purchase materials. Purchasers are expected to perform the following activities:
- Read and understand the Chemical Hygiene Plan as well as the Hazardous Materials Management Plan.
- Complete the applicable training associated with Chemical and Hazardous Materials Management.
- Purchase materials as outlined in the CHP, HMMP and other Cal Maritime policies and guidance. This includes completion and submission of the appropriate paperwork required for purchasing hazardous materials.
- Provide feedback and ideas regarding improvements to the CHP and HMMP based upon their implementation of its guidelines and procedures
Hazardous Materials and Reproductive Effects
Both men and women may be exposed to hazardous agents that pose a reproductive hazard such as infertility, hormonal changes, birth defects and genetic damage. These agents include ionizing radiation, alcohol, cigarette smoke, pharmaceuticals, and some of the thousands of different chemicals that are used in the home or workplace. Although many of these have been tested to determine whether they cause acute (immediate) effects on the body, few have been studied to see if they cause birth defects (teratogens) or genetic defects (mutagens). Even fewer have been studied to see if they can cause infertility, reduced sperm count, menstrual disorders, or other disorders relating to reproduction. Therefore, SRM and the CHO designate shall consider the potential reproductive effects of chemicals prior to selecting materials for use, and where feasible, preclude or limit their use.
Hazardous Materials and Pregnancy
The primary path for hazardous substances to reach an unborn child is through the placenta. Many chemicals and drugs that enter a pregnant woman's body (through breathing, swallowing, absorption through the skin, etc.) will eventually enter the mother's blood circulation, cross the placenta and thus affect the developing fetus. In general, the important questions of exactly how much of the toxic substance that enters the mother's body will reach the fetus, or what concentration the fetus can tolerate without harmful effects have not yet been answered. The fetus is usually most vulnerable in the early weeks of pregnancy (first 13 weeks or trimester) but may also be at risk later in pregnancy. In light of the potential harm from workplace exposures to both the pregnant woman and her developing fetus, it is important for the woman to inform her supervisor of her pregnancy as soon as possible, so that necessary steps to avoid exposure to reproductive toxins can be taken. This recommendation is not intended to discriminate against women; rather, it is intended to provide the pregnant woman with information about the possible hazards and her options. Workplace hazard and PPE assessments are required, see 8 CCR §3380 "Personal Protective Equipment", for all locations where: A) there is use or storage of hazardous materials, or B) where equipment may present a physical hazard. Detailed Cal Maritime policy requirements and guidance are provided in Personal Protective Equipment Program. Related requirements include:
- Written hazard assessments
- Identification of required PPE
- Training and refresher training
- Posting of area hazards and required PPE
The Laboratory Hazard Assessment Tool (LHAT) categorizes chemical and other types of hazards and specifies the appropriate PPE for each hazard. Note that the LHAT does not identify all the hazards present in a particular work environment. PIs/Laboratory Supervisors must evaluate whether there are additional hazards in their laboratories not addressed by the LHAT. Once the appropriate PPE is identified for the active worker and individuals in the adjacent area, the PI/Laboratory Supervisor must provide the required PPE to all personnel and conduct and document training on the proper use of the PPE. PIs and Laboratory Supervisors are required to provide information to SRM concerning: the laboratory location; laboratory personnel roster, identity of the Laboratory or Facility Supervisor; the Laboratory Safety Coordinator, if applicable; and certify the assessment and training was successfully completed.
- SRM will measure an employee's anticipated worse-case exposure to any regulated hazardous chemical if there is reason to believe that exposure levels for that chemical routinely exceed the action level [one-half of the Cal-OSHA Permissible Exposure Level (PEL)], or in the absence of an action level, the (PEL) or Threshold Limit Value (TLV).
- Routine monitoring of airborne concentrations is not usually justified nor practical in laboratories, but may be appropriate when testing, redesigning or introducing new fume hoods or other exhaust ventilation devices, or when a highly hazardous chemical or process is used in a manner which is likely to cause exposure.
- The CHO-designate and SRM will promptly investigate all employee-reported incidents in which there is a possibility of employee overexposure to a hazardous chemical. If you suspect that chemical exposures may exceed the PEL, contact the CHO-designate. If symptoms are present, arrange for a visit to Cal Maritime's authorized medical facility.
- Events or circumstances that might reasonably constitute overexposure include:
- A hazardous chemical leaked, spilled, or otherwise was released in an uncontrolled manner.
- Direct skin or eye contact with a hazardous chemical.
- Faculty or staff manifests symptoms, such as a headache, rash, nausea, coughing, tearing, irritation or redness of eyes, irritation of nose or throat, dizziness, loss of motor dexterity or judgment, and
- Some or all of the symptoms disappear when the person is taken away from the exposure area and breathes fresh air, and
- The symptoms reappear soon after the employee returns to work with the same hazardous chemicals.
- Two or more persons in the same laboratory work area have similar complaints.
Chemical Control Criteria Guidelines
- Exposures by inhalation of airborne contaminants (gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists) must not exceed levels listed as permissible exposure limit (PEL) by Cal-OSHA in the latest edition of Threshold Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants (TLV) published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), whichever is lowest. These TLV levels refer to airborne concentrations of substances and represent conditions under which it is believed that workers may be repeatedly exposed without adverse effect. TLVs are normally published on manufacturer's Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), which are available in the laboratory area or through SRM.
- In all cases of potentially harmful exposure, feasible engineering or administrative controls must first be established. In cases where respiratory protective equipment alone or with other control measures is required to protect the employee, the protective equipment must be approved by the CHO-designate for each specific use.
Hazard Control Prioritization
- No laboratory can rely on one particular type of control technology to ensure that exposures to hazardous chemical agents are kept as low as reasonably achievable. The primary and most effective approach is through the use of engineering controls. Complementing the engineering controls should be the correct combination of administrative procedures and the use of personal protective equipment.
Recirculation of Air
- Recirculation of contaminated exhaust air in laboratories using toxic, corrosive, flammable or other hazardous agents is prohibited.
- Laboratory facilities using carcinogens and acute toxins, that, if released, could pose a personal injury or environmental impact risk, shall be designed so that a negative pressure differential exists between the laboratory and the exit corridor(s) servicing the laboratory. The only exception to this is where clean room requirements mandate that the room be under positive pressure with respect to the surrounding facilities.
Laboratory Hoods General Principles
- Laboratory exhaust hoods should be considered as backup devices that can contain and exhaust toxic, offensive, or flammable materials when the material being used on the design of an experiment causes vapors, gas, or dust to escape from the apparatus being used.
- Hoods are not regarded as a means for disposing of chemicals.
- Hoods should be evaluated by operators prior to and during each use by means of simple visual indicators (such as mylar strips) for adequate airflow.
- Except when adjustments of apparatus within the hood are being made, the hood sash should be kept closed. If the hood does not have a bypass grill, then the sash should be left open at least six inches to avoid the flow from being choked off. Vertical sashes should be left down and horizontal sashes closed. Sliding sashes should not be removed from horizontal sliding-sash hoods.
- During operations, keep the face opening of a hood as small as possible to improve the performance of the hood. Reducing the opening in the laboratory hood may also provide protection from explosions due to chemical reactions, over pressure, etc.
- Performance of a hood depends upon such factors as the placement of materials and equipment in the hood, room drafts from open doors or windows, turbulence caused by persons walking by, and the presence of the user in front of the hood. Keep apparatus back from the front edge of the hood to reduce the potential for contaminant release.
- Hoods are not intended for storage of chemicals. Materials stored in hoods should be kept to a minimum. Stored chemicals should not block vents or alter airflow patterns. Chemicals not in use should be covered or capped.
- Laboratory workers should be prepared for the event of ventilation failure or other unexpected occurrences such as fire or explosion in the hood.
- Mechanical ventilation must remain in operation at all times when hoods are in use and for a sufficient time thereafter to clear hoods of airborne hazardous substances. When mechanical ventilation is not in operation, hazardous substances in the hood must be covered or capped off.
- Hoods must be inspected frequently and cleaned as necessary to ensure adequate airflow and the prevention of residue buildup. The Facilities Department shall conduct an annual ventilation survey and post flow rate and date of test on each hood.
- Newly purchased laboratory hoods and installed exhaust ducting for solvent operations shall be constructed of non-combustible materials to reduce the potential of damage should a fire occur within the workstation.
- Newly purchased laboratory hoods and exhaust ducting for corrosive applications shall be constructed from or coated with, materials that are resistant to corrosive compounds.
- Provisions must be made for adequate make up air for all hoods that are used in a laboratory.
- General airflow should not be turbulent and should be relatively uniform throughout the laboratory.
- Laboratory-type hood face velocities (including wet bench enclosures) must be sufficient to maintain an inward flow of air at all openings into the hood under normal operating conditions. Air flow into hoods depends upon configuration but must be at a minimum average face velocity of at least 100 linear feet per minute (lfpm) with a minimum of 70 lfpm at any point, except where more stringent special requirements are identified. Hoods used for carcinogen control must have minimum face velocity of 150 lfpm with a minimum of 125 lfpm at any point.
- The face velocity must be obtainable with the movable sashes opened at least 18". Where the required velocity can be obtained by partly closing the sash, the sash and/or jamb must be marked to show the maximum opening at which the hood face velocity meets the requirements. Any hood failing to meet the requirements must be considered deficient in airflow and must be posted with placards, plainly visible, which prohibit use of hazardous substances within the hood.
- When sufficient quantities of flammable gases or liquids are used, or when combustible liquids are heated above their flash points, hoods that are not bypassed must have permanent stops installed which restrict closure of the sash so that sufficient airflow is maintained to prevent explosions. Concentrations in the duct must not exceed 10% of the lower explosive/flammable limit.
- Exhaust fan systems must be non-sparking where ignition sources are isolated if exhausting sufficient quantities of flammable vapors and corrosion resistant if handling corrosive fumes.
- Exhaust stacks must be located in such a manner with respect to air intakes as to preclude the recirculation of laboratory hood emissions within a building.
- Laboratory hoods must be seismically braced to prevent toppling or sliding during an earthquake.
- Perchloric acid must be used in a closed system or within a specially designated acid fume hood with wash down systems to prevent the accumulation of explosive perchlorates in the fume hood.
Other Ventilation Systems
- Other local exhaust systems used in the laboratory, should be coordinated by Facilities Department in accordance with ACGIH, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) requirements and other nationally recognized standards.
- Do not attach canopy hoods or snorkel systems to existing fume hood exhaust ducts without consulting Facilities.
- Glove boxes generally operate under negative pressure, though some operate under positive pressure, in which case, leaks could cause problems. Positive pressure glove boxes should be thoroughly tested before each use and there should be a method of monitoring the integrity of the system (such as a shutoff valve or a pressure gauge designed into the system).
- Laboratory apparatus that may discharge hazardous vapors (vacuum pumps and distillation columns) should be vented to an auxiliary local exhaust system such as direct ducting, canopy, or snorkel hoods.
The most important administrative controls for hazardous operations are the safe work practices that are developed and used in the Laboratory. Safe work practices are those practices used in a laboratory operation, which have been communicated via on-the-job training, through reading of equipment and process specifications, and through reading of general safety information.
Written safe work practices are required for "high hazard" operations and recommended for other potentially hazardous operations. Safe work practices should be developed by the faculty and maintained in appendix of this document. A list of possible "high hazard" operations requiring Safe Work Practices by classification is provided below.
The number of hazardous chemicals and the number of reactions among them is so large that previous knowledge of all potential hazards cannot be at Cal Maritime. Therefore, when the chemical properties of a material are not fully known, it should be at Cal Maritime hazardous and used in the smallest quantity possible. This will minimize exposure potential, and thus, reduce the probable magnitude of unexpected chemical events.
The following general safety principles should be observed by all personnel when working with chemicals:
- Substitute less toxic materials whenever possible (e.g., toluene may be substituted for benzene).
- Minimize all chemical exposures through the use of engineering (e.g., lab-hoods), administrative (e.g. Safe Work Practices), and personal protective (e.g. gloves) controls.
- Obtain and read the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and other hazard information on solids, liquids, and gases used to support laboratory operations.
- Confine long hair and loose clothing in the laboratory.
- Be knowledgeable in the use of laboratory emergency equipment such as eyewashes, showers, and fire extinguishers, and receive information about how to obtain additional help in an emergency.
- Carefully label or cross-reference every secondary container with the identity of its contents. Appropriate hazard warnings will be required if more than one person will be using the secondary container or if the container is to be left unattended for more than half an hour.
- Utilize equipment only for its designed purpose.
- Keep the work area clean and orderly.
- Determine compatibility of chemicals and store incompatibles separately.
- Provide a means of containing the materials if equipment or containers should break or spill their contents (secondary containment). A pre-determined spill abatement procedure should be part of the Safe Operating Procedure which covers the use of the chemical.
- Limit the volume of volatile or flammable materials to the minimum needed for short operation periods.
- Position and clamp reaction apparatus thoughtfully in order to permit manipulation without the need to move the apparatus until the entire reaction is complete. Combine reagents in appropriate order.
- All chemical storage cabinets and racks, and all laboratory equipment using hazardous materials shall be seismically braced in accordance with best structural engineering practices.
- Always Add Acids to water to avoid reactions and splattering.
Health and Hygiene
- NEVER use mouth suction to pipette chemicals or to start a siphon; a pipette bulb or an aspirator should be used to provide vacuum.
- Contamination of food, drink, and smoking materials is a potential route for exposure to toxic substances. Food shall be stored, handled, and consumed in areas free of hazardous substances.
- Food and drink shall not be permitted in areas where chemicals or chemical equipment are being used.
- Glassware or utensils that have been used for laboratory operations should never be used to prepare or consume food or beverages. Laboratory refrigerators and ice chests shall not be used for food storage.
- Thoroughly wash hands and remove contaminated lab coats etc. prior to leaving laboratory.
Example High Hazard Operations Requiring Written Safe Work Practices
- Equipment and processes which use carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic substances.
- Equipment or processes which use more than 2 pint/ 2 pound of organic solvents, acids, bases, oxidizers, heavy metals, toxic materials.
- Equipment or processes which involve accessible hazardous electricity or ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, including laser light.
- Powered machining areas and equipment.
Access to Cal Maritime Laboratories is controlled by Faculty and Technicians. Cal Maritime requires that every employee, visitor, contractor, or other person performing work in the lab be familiar with, and observe the applicable Cal Maritime environmental health and safety requirements for the University. New employees and, where appropriate, contractors, students and visitors are required to receive chemical safety and hazard training matched to their responsibilities and duties. The responsible Faculty ensures that this requirement is met in their areas.
Cal Maritime does not allow for students to work alone in any of the University labs or shops. A faculty, lab technician or other designated staff member must be on Campus at all times the lab or shop is accessible.
Precautions should be taken for unattended laboratory operations that are carried out continuously or overnight. Unattended operations should be designed to be safe, and plans should be made to avoid hazards in case of failure. If possible, make arrangements for routine surveillance (e.g., each hour) of the operation, leave the lights on, and leave an appropriate sign on the door to indicate that the operation is going but has been left unattended.
- Names and telephone numbers of lab operator(s) are to be posted on the entrance door for unattended operations.
- Operations requiring cooling water shall employ monitoring devices that will shut the operation down in the event of water supply failure.
- In general, it is imprudent to work in laboratories alone. Arrangements should be made between individuals working in separate laboratories to crosscheck with one another periodically.
- Laboratory work known to be hazardous must not be undertaken by faculty/staff alone in a laboratory. At least two persons must be present. Safe Work Practices shall specify this requirement.
- For hazardous operations (as determined by the faculty supervisor or regulation), students shall not be left unsupervised while working in the laboratory.
Cal Maritime employees shall not work alone in laboratories when involved in highly hazardous operations. Examples of highly hazardous operations follow:
- Confined space entry.
- Conditions requiring the use of Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA), air line respirators, or Supplied Air Breathing Apparatus (SABA).
- Work on energized high voltage (600 volts or more) electrical equipment.
- Work involving the potential for atmospheres Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH). (e.g., those operations where engineering controls are not in place to preclude IDLH atmospheres from occurring).
- Work on unguarded moving equipment or machinery.
- Work on energized high-pre systems or vessels.
- Work with high-energy materials (i.e., oxidation, polymerization, radioactive, etc.).
- Work in laboratories involving the handling and processing of bulk chemicals (e.g., greater than 1 gallon containers).
- Any other work activity identified by faculty, the Program Administrator or SRM as being too hazardous to be performed alone.
The following safe work practices should be observed at all times in the laboratory:
- Careful handling and storage procedures should be used to avoid damaging glassware.
- Adequate hand protection should be used when inserting glass tubing into rubber stoppers or corks or when placing rubber tubing on glass hose connections. Glass tubing should be fire polished or rounded and lubricated, and hands should be held close together to limit movement of glass, should fracture occur. The use of plastic or metal connectors should be considered.
- Glass-blowing operations should not be attempted unless proper annealing facilities are available.
- Vacuum-jacketed glass apparatus should be handled with extreme care to prevent implosions. Equipment such as Dewar flasks should be taped or shielded. Only glassware designed for vacuum work should be used for that purpose.
- Hand protection should be used when picking up broken glass.
- Glass disposal boxes should be made available where broken glass may be generated. When glass boxes are full, the Recycling Department should be contacted for pick-up and disposal.
- Proper instruction should be provided in the use of glass equipment designed for specialized tasks, which can represent unusual risks for the first-time user. (For example, separatory funnels containing volatile solvents can develop considerable pressure during use.)
The following housekeeping practices should be observed at all times in the laboratory:
- There is a definite relationship between safety performance and orderliness in the laboratory. Work areas should be kept as clean as possible and free from obstructions. Cleanup should be completed following any operation.
- Stairways and hallways should not be used as storage areas.
- Spilled chemicals shall be identified, isolated, safely as soon as feasible, cleaned up and disposed of properly. Only trained personnel shall perform spill clean-ups. Spills of large quantities of chemicals where there is the potential for personal injury, for environmental impact, and for property damage shall be reported to SRM for response.
- Old containers and chemical wastes should be disposed of promptly and not be allowed to accumulate in the laboratory. Wastes shall not be accumulated for more than 90 days except in designated satellite accumulation areas. Waste containers shall be labeled for contents and dated.
- Non-hazardous materials spills (e.g. water) are to be cleaned up immediately.
- Access to exits, emergency equipment, and essential equipment shut downs and controls shall never be blocked.
- Equipment and chemicals all should be stored properly; clutter should be minimized.
- Incompatible chemicals and operations need to be segregated during use.
- Chemical storage containers should be closed and stored appropriately at all times except during use.
The term Materials Safety Data Sheet or MSDS was changed to simply Safety Data Sheet (SDS) in 2015 and must be available for each hazardous substance in a laboratory's or facilities chemical inventory. Laboratory or the facilities space with a hazardous substance supervisors are responsible for keeping SDSs current and making them readily available to all students and employees throughout the work day. SDSs must be in a central location that can be accessed immediately in the event of an emergency. Electronic copies may be used, but must be accessible to all personnel.
A SDS Quick Card and more detailed information is available from OSHA.
Labeling of Hazardous Materials Containers
All containers (including lab glassware, safety cans, and plastic squeeze bottles) must have labels that identify their chemical contents. Primary responsibility is held by the department using/generating such containers. Experiments that carry over or must otherwise be stored must be properly labeled and contained. Exceptions to this requirement are secondary containers (such as beakers, graduated cylinders or containers) used solely by one person within their workstation for a portion of a day. The container labels may contain an abbreviated or common chemical name, such as HCl. The complete chemical name associated with each abbreviated or common name will be posted in an accessible place in the laboratory. Materials Safety Data Sheets for each chemical will be stored in a central location readily accessible to faculty and staff. The department or operating unit designated personnel will regularly inspect labs and other pertinent areas to ensure that proper labeling occurs. SRM will also conduct routine inspections throughout the academic period.
The separation of chemicals (solids or liquids) during storage is necessary to reduce the possibility of unwanted chemical reactions which may result from accidental mixing. Use either distance or barriers (e.g., trays) to isolate chemicals into the following minimum classifications.
- Flammable or combustible liquids (e.g., acetone, benzene, ether, alcohol).
- Other liquids (e.g., chloroform, trichloroethane).
- Inorganic Acids (e.g., nitric, sulfuric, hydrochchloric, perchchloric)- treat acetic acid as a flammable liquid.
- Bases (e.g., sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide) and oxidizers and poisons.
- Explosives or unstable reactives, such as picric acid, should be stored separately, outdoors in flammable storage facility.
In addition to the above classifications:
- Carcinogens should be stored in secondary containers that are chemically resistant and unbreakable.
- Stored chemicals (such as Peroxide Formers) should be examined semiannually for deterioration, integrity and expiration dates.
- The amount of chemicals permitted for storage should be kept as small as practical.
- Exposure of chemicals to heat or direct sunlight shall be avoided.
- Fume hoods are not intended as a primary storage area of chemicals. Chemicals stored in fume hoods should be kept to a minimum and should not block vents or alter airflow.
- Lips, strips, or bars should be installed across the width of reagent shelves to restrain the chemicals in case of earthquake.
- Chemicals must not be stored in the same refrigerator used for food storage. Refrigerators used for storing chemicals must be appropriately identified by placing the following label on the door (labels may be obtained from SRM).
- Chemical Storage areas will be labeled with a National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) diamond reflecting the hazards in the area. Reference the Hazard Communication Program for a discussion of the NFPA labeling system.
Refer to the Flammable Materials Store Plan for more details.
It is the responsibility of the Faculty to follow reasonable guidelines when ordering/procuring chemicals for use in teaching and research. It is prudent to consider the following:
- Chemical purchases should consider high waste disposal costs at a later date.
- Containers shall not be accepted without an adequate identifying label (e.g., chemical identity, hazard warnings, manufacturers name and address). Unsolicited samples of hazardous materials must not be accepted by Cal Maritime personnel.
Procedures for Chemical Ordering and MSDS Procurement:
- Person wishing to order any chemical will fill out Purchase Requisition (PR).
- Technician receives PR from requester (can be in the form of an email), evaluates against allowed storage amounts for the use area, ensure is not a significant hazard, and with above restrictions met order is made.
- In cases of chemicals of significant hazard, the faculty requesting the material shall consult the CHO-designate and SRM Director for help in a Cal Maritime proper storage, handling, and to allow for the future disposal of waste products. This is the responsibility of the faculty and shall be done prior to ordering and must include written documentation.
- For chemicals deemed particularly hazardous by regulatory citation (e.g., CCR, Title 8, fire code or other) or the requesting faculty, the person ordering should provide an MSDS sheet, or equivalent information (if possible). The requesting faculty shall demonstrate compliance with all pertinent regulations, including baseline medical monitoring if required prior to ordering.
- Chemical sent to requester directly from vendor.
- Technician places MSDS at appropriate location. MSDS may also be obtained from a campus computer at https://www.csum.edu/web/safety/home by selecting the MSDS icon.
- Faculty and Staff must review MSDS prior to working with a material
The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is needed to compliment the variety of engineering and administrative controls present in the laboratory environment. Operation specific PPE requirements are provided in Safe Work Practices. The following is a listing of minimum PPE use guidelines for laboratory personnel:
The following practices concerning apparel should be observed at all times:
- Appropriate clothing must be worn, including a protective apron or laboratory coat to protect against chemical splashes or spills, cold, and heat. Use protective apparel, including face shields, gloves, and other special clothing or footwear, as needed.
- Skin and eyes should always be protected from possible exposure by use of appropriate laboratory clothing, gloves, safety glasses, or goggles.
- Remove jewelry from wrists and hands to prevent chemicals from collecting underneath, contacting electrical sources, catching on laboratory equipment, and/or damaging the jewelry itself.
- To prevent spreading contamination to areas outside of a laboratory, laboratory coats should not be removed from the laboratory area.
- Loose apparel should be confined.
- Open-toed shoes or sandals should not be worn in any laboratory area.
- If laboratory coats are contaminated with hazardous materials, they should be removed immediately and placed in a hazardous waste bag for decontamination.
Gloves should be worn whenever working with hazardous chemicals, rough or sharp- edged objects, or very hot or very cold materials. Select gloves based on the material being handled, the particular hazard involved, and their suitability for the procedures being conducted. Gloves should be checked visually for discoloration, punctures, and tears or by other means prior to each use and should be changed often, based on their frequency of use and permeability to the chemical(s) handled. Even appropriate, high quality gloves will eventually be permeated by chemicals.
Safety glasses are required in all laboratory areas where hazardous materials are stored and used. The safety glasses should be impact resistant eyeglasses with side shields. Goggles and/or Face Shields should be worn in addition to safety glasses when pouring or mixing bulk chemicals. Contact lenses are prohibited where handling of corrosive chemicals and/or particulate emissions could result in exposure to the eye.
The use of respirators at Cal Maritime is governed by the requirements set forth in the Cal Maritime Respiratory Protection Plan. Respirators should not be needed in a normal laboratory setting. However, if engineering and administrative controls cannot control the concentrations of airborne hazardous materials below OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs), or when atmospheric conditions are unknown, respiratory protection will be required.
Refer to the Personal Protective Equipment Program for more details.
- All machining, test and mechanical equipment shall be adequately furnished with guards that prevent access to hazardous electrical connections, pinch points or moving parts.
- All guards should be inspected before using equipment.
- Faculty/Staff shall not turn on, use, repair, or operate any hazardous laboratory equipment unless trained and authorized by the responsible lab technician or faculty member.
Safety shields must be used for protection against possible explosions or uncontrolled reactions. Laboratory equipment must be shielded on all sides so that there is no line-of sight exposure to personnel. The sash on a chemical fume hood is a readily available partial shield. However, a portable shield must also be used, particularly with hoods that have vertical-rising sashes rather than horizontal-sliding sashes for operations having the potential for explosion such as:
- Whenever a reaction is attempted for the first time (small quantities of reactants should be used to minimize hazards); and
- Whenever a familiar test or reaction is carried out on a larger than usual scale.
Eyewash & Showers
- Eyewash fountains are required if the substance in use presents an eye hazard (e.g., any corrosive). The eyewash fountain must provide a soft stream or spray of aerated water.
- Safety showers must be provided in areas where a corrosive chemical or rapid fire hazard exists, for immediate first aid treatment of chemical splashes and for extinguishing clothing fires. The shower must be capable of drenching the victim immediately in the event of an emergency.
- Eyewash fountains and safety showers should be located close to each other so that, if necessary, the eyes can be washed while the body is showered. Access to these facilities must remain open at all times and within ten seconds of travel distance. In case of accident, flush the affected body part for at least 15 minutes. Report the accident.
- Eyewash and showers shall be tested and flushed by Facilities personnel at least monthly to ensure that they are operating properly. Inspection tags must be filled out to document testing. Faulty equipment shall be repaired by Facilities, when problem is identified or upon request.
Laboratories using hazardous chemicals should have a BC or ABC rated, dry chemical fire extinguisher in close proximity of any exit for use on ordinary combustibles, flammable liquids, and electrical fires. If additional extinguishers are needed for an area, contact SRM for information concerning recommendations and requirements.
Flammable Liquid Storage Cabinets
- Generally, a minimum amount of flammable liquids necessary for normal lab operations should be kept on hand and stored in a cabinet.
- Capacity should not exceed the volume capacity rating of each chemical storage cabinet.
- Cabinets must be labeled "Flammable - Keep Fire Away."
- Storage of flammable liquids in excess of ten gallons must be in an UL listed, Factory Mutual (FM) approved, flammable liquids storage cabinet.
- Flammable liquids storage cabinets should be used for the storage of flammable and combustible liquids only. Do not store corrosives, oxidizers, or reactive chemicals with flammable or combustible liquids.
The information provided in this section is a practical overview of the guide to Hazardous Waste Management. The purpose is to ensure that waste is handled in a safe, legal, and cost effective manner. More detailed information can be found in Cal Maritime's Hazardous Waste Management Policy or in the Cal Maritime Spill Response Plan on file with SRM.
Identification of A Hazardous Waste
The general definition of hazardous waste is any substance which exhibits characteristic(s) of flammability, reactivity, corrosivity, or acute or chronic toxicity. Substances which may lack these characteristics may also be considered hazardous due to their concentration or quantity. A substance is only considered a waste after it is determined unusable.
Only those containers which are provided and approved by SRM will be used for the containment of hazardous materials and their waste(s). Check with SRM for the locations of empty hazardous waste containers. It is critical that each container be labeled properly. Labels shall include, though not limited to, name of waste and date of generation. It is important that hazardous waste is collected in Department of Transportation approved containers and drums to prevent unnecessary re-containerization of hazardous waste.
SRM shall be notified prior to the commencing of activities that may generate hazardous wastes. In the event of a spill or contamination by hazardous materials, SRM shall be notified immediately.
Spills of Hazardous Materials
The following actions should be taken when responding to chemical spills of less than one pint or one pound:
- Wear appropriate personal protective equipment during clean up.
- Pour appropriate sorbent and/or neutralizing agent on spill.
- Clean up; place waste in labeled plastic bag for disposal.
- Decontaminate spilled area if required.
- Complete a label/tag and attach it to spill clean-up containers for identification of contents.
- Take container to designated accumulation station.
If the spill is greater than one pint or one pound and has the potential to cause personal injury, environmental impact, or property damage, the following actions should be taken:
- If in laboratory hood close sash.
- Evacuate people from the area.
- Isolate the spilled material, if possible to do so safely.
- Identify the spilled material.
- If the material is flammable, turn off ignition and heat sources.
- Call 1111 from an internal phone to summon Campus Police and stay on the line to answer questions.
Effective dissemination of safety information lies at the very heart of a successful Injury and Illness Prevention Program. It is essential to provide training for employees concerning general safe work practices as well as specific instruction with respect to hazards unique to each employee's job assignment.
The Department or operating unit has the option of providing Chemical Hygiene Safety from:
- Providing training from within the department by the designated competent person/trainer, or
- Training provided by University SRM, or
- A training provider outside the University.
Note: All outside trainer venders are to be reviewed and content approved by SRM.
Training content is determined by the Department of Safety and Risk Management, as well as Department Management which is based upon observed hazards, type of equipment, Department need, and work requirements.
Program Training is intended to help participants understand the goals and objectives of the Chemical Hygiene Safety Program and provide guidance on how to follow the policies and procedures contained in the Plan. It is the responsibility of the Hazardous Material Coordinator to ensure that Chemical Handlers, from professors to students, all obtain appropriate training and receive the guidance necessary to follow the procedures outlined in the Program. Personnel must complete the Program Training within six months of employment or assignment to a location where chemical materials are used or stored and every three years thereafter.
- Components of the hazardous materials training include:
- Roles and responsibilities.
- Understanding the definition of a hazardous material.
- Guidelines for purchasing hazardous materials.
- Hazardous materials management.
- Ways to minimize quantity and toxicity of hazardous materials.
- Ways to minimize hazardous materials usage and waste generation.
- Procedures for maintaining an inventory of hazardous materials.
- Health and safety requirements for use and storage of hazardous materials.
- Procedures for completing the Hazardous Materials Management Plan forms.
The Cal Maritime program specific training will be conducted through the Department of Safety and Risk Management in conjunction with existing training programs associated with chemical and hazardous materials management. The training will be provided in a blended format, of online modules and instructor lead, so that it is accessible for all users at their convenience.
Employees expected to utilize chemicals as part of their job duties must be adequately trained prior to using such chemicals.
Employees should be trained in the following areas:
- Be able to recognize hazards associated with different types of chemicals and equipment; and the safety precautions necessary for use.
- The PPE required to be worn during the use of chemicals.
- The proper use of tools and other equipment, be able to recognize defects in tools, which may render them out of service.
- When applicable, provide access to the manufacturer specification and manual's for specific equipment to be used.
- Department-developed standard operating procedures (SOPs) outlining specific safety precautions for certain tools or activities.
- Signs and symptoms related to the exposures to hazardous chemicals used in the work area;
- Methods that may be used to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemical.
- This could include industrial hygiene monitoring, the use of continuous monitoring devices, visual appearance, or odors of chemicals;
- Details of manufacturer labels, SDSs and workplace labeling system, and how that information can be used to assure safe handling and storage; and
- Procedure for addressing non-routine tasks involving hazardous chemicals.
Supervisors and Principal Investigators must provide employees information and training regarding the physical and health hazards of the chemicals in the work area before assigning employees to work with hazardous chemicals. Refresher training is required whenever a new chemical hazard is introduced into the workplace or a new or updated SDS is received.
Employees must be provided training or refresher training prior to engaging in a non- routine task. Employees must be provided hazard notification and precautionary measures to avoid or minimize the potential for risk of exposure.
Retraining may be necessary to maintain employee knowledge of working with chemicals or if a near-miss or injury has occurred.
Training is to be documented and kept in a readily accessible location by the Department designee for access reference as needed by Department Management, Department of Safety & Risk Management, or regulatory agency (e.g. CalOSHA). Submit the completed training roster of attendees to the Department of Safety & Risk Management.
Refer to Cal/OSHA Safety & Health Training and Instruction Requirements as outlined in Appendix C of the Injury Illness Prevention Program.
Essential records, including those legally required for Workers' Compensation, insurance audits and government inspections will be maintained for as long as required. Individual Departments and/or Colleges will also keep records of steps taken to establish and maintain the Injury and Illness Prevention Program.
They must include:
- Records of scheduled and periodic inspections to identify unsafe conditions and work practices. The documentation includes the name of the person(s) conducting the inspection, the unsafe conditions and work practices identified, and the corrective action(s) taken. These records will be maintained for at least three years.
- Documentation of health and safety training for each employee. Specifically, employee name or other identifier, training dates, type(s) of training and the name of the training provider will be included. Records will be retained for at least three years. Standard forms for maintaining this information can be obtained from the Department of Safety and Risk Management.
Accurate documentation and recordkeeping of exposure monitoring, medical surveillance and health and safety training is an important component of this CHP. This section defines the recordkeeping requirements for important aspects of the Plan.
Specific Recordkeeping Responsibilities:
- Current chemical inventories and Material Safety Data Sheets for each laboratory shall be readily available for staff and faculty access and reference in the event of an emergency. Responsibility: Chemical Technician
- Exposure records for hazardous chemicals and harmful physical agents will be maintained for 30 years from end of employment per 29 CFR 1910.20. Responsibility: SRM and CHO.
- Medical records for staff or faculty exposed to hazardous chemicals and harmful physical agents will be maintained for the duration of employment plus 30 years per 20 CFR 1910.20. Responsibility: SRM.
- Additionally, the following records must be kept for a minimum of three years:
- Staff and Faculty Training Records-will be held by SRM, while Student Records are held by faculty. Student records must be held until class is completed, the semester ends or a student is no longer enrolled.
- Area Sponsored or Area Specific Classes including Training on Safe Work Practices presented to students by faculty or staff; Responsibility: Faculty.
- Accident Investigations. Responsibility: School Dean of Science and Technology, SRM and CHO.
- Lab Safety Committee Meetings; Responsibility: CHO.
Detailed recordkeeping is a vital aspect of promoting health and safety, as well as maintaining environmental compliance. The success of the program can only be measured if everyone participates and maintains the required records. Records and reporting documents are required for purchasing, storing, use, and disposal of hazardous materials. The forms are indicated throughout the Hazardous Materials Management Plan and include:
- Follow P-Card or Purchase Order procedures.
- Laboratory Check-In/Check-Out Form.
- Laboratory Decommissioning Checklist.
- Laboratory Safety Inspection Checklist.
- Up-to-date inventory in Cal Maritime CIS.
- SDS in Cal Maritime CIS.
Each Department is responsible for maintaining their own records of machine safeguarding inspections / surveys. In addition, Departments must maintain training records of personnel who have been trained on this program and/or to specific equipment as may be necessary to demonstrate training compliance to a regulatory agency. Documents such as JSAs, SOPs, operation manuals, signage, etc., may all function to demonstrate record keeping, safe-operation, warning and training activities.
Retain all training records for ten years after employees have retired or left University employment. For students, retain records for ten years after the student's projected graduation date.
Training records will be kept in each department and copies will be forwarded to the Department of Safety and Risk Management.
Departments must maintain the following records as part of the hand and portable power tool safety program.
Cal Maritime and its subcontractors shall comply with the following requirements.
In case of conflict or overlap of the below references, the most stringent provision shall apply.
Other applicable regulations include those promulgated by the U.S. Department of Labor including 29 CFR 1910.1450 Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (the "Laboratory Standard"). These regulations require that the CHP be readily available wherever potentially hazardous chemicals are used, handled or stored. Also applicable is the General Duty Clause of the Occupational Safety and Health Act which states: "Each employer:
- Shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employee.
- Shall comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under this Act.
Each employee shall comply with occupational safety and health standards and all rules, regulations, and orders issued pursuant to this Act which are applicable to his own actions and conduct."