Last Updated: 03/06/2018
The purpose of the Injury Illness Prevention Program (IIPP) is to outline Cal Maritime's environmental health and safety requirements, expectations, and responsibilities in order to achieve effective campus safety performance through Integrated Safety Management (ISM). The Electrical Safety Program is a subject specific component the supports the overall University IIPP.
Note: Training Ship Golden Bear (TSGB) is regulated under MARAD. For operations pertaining to the TSGB - Refer to Shoreside Administration Manual (SAM) and Vessel Operations Manual (VOM).
More than 3,600 disabling electrical contact injuries occur in the workplace and more than 2,000 workers are sent to burn centers with electric burns every year in the U.S. Every day one person dies from electrical incidents.
This program guides safe-work policy and procedures for all electrical work at Cal Maritime. All faculty, staff, students, visitors and contractors must comply with the requirements of this program as it ensures their safety by:
Establishing a formal process for ensuring safe electrical work through a safe electrical equipment and contract services procurement approval process.
The Department of Safety & Risk Management has developed this program to support the Cal Maritime as a means to describe all aspects of electrical safety including the control of hazardous energies (lock out tag out), personnel accountability, hazard assessment, safe work practices, training requirements and record keeping.
This program applies to any electrical work at Cal Maritime when someone:
This Electrical Safe Work Program provides the minimum knowledge of safe-work practices necessary to guide the work noted above and prevent electrical shock, burns or property loss. Reading this program does not qualify the reader to perform electrical work. Safe-work practices beyond the scope of this program must be established for each work area by responsible persons and at minimum must include the safety concerns, policies and procedures outlined by this program
When an electric current passes through the air between two conductors, the temperature can reach 35,000°F. Exposure to these extreme temperatures can result in life threatening burns. The majority of hospital admissions due to electrical accidents are from arc-flash burns, not electrical shocks. Arc- flashes can and do kill at distances in excess of 10 ft.
The tremendous temperatures of the arc cause an explosive expansion of both metal and the surrounding air in the arc path. For example, copper expands by a factor of 67,000 times when changed from a solid into a vapor. The dangers of this explosion are of a high blast pressure wave, high decibel levels of sound and high velocity shrapnel. The material and molten metal is expelled away from the arc at speeds exceeding 700 miles per hour. Arc blasts often cause severe injuries and death.
Burns suffered in electrical accidents are of two basic types: electrical burns and thermal contact burns. Electrical burns cause tissue damage to skin and internal tissues because the body is unable to dissipate the heat generated by current flowing through the body tissues. Typically, these burns are slow to heal. Thermal contact burns are those normally experienced from skin contact with the hot surfaces of overheated electric conductors.
Damage to the internal tissues may not be apparent immediately after contact with electricity. Delayed internal tissue swelling and irritation are possible. Prompt medical attention can help minimize these effects and avoid death or long-term injury.
Electrical Shock Hazards
Accidental contact with exposed electrical parts operating at a voltage greater than 50 volts to ground and having a current greater than 5 milliamperes can cause serious injury or death. Fatal ventricular fibrillation of the heart can be triggered by a current flow of as little as several milliamperes. Severe injuries, such as internal burns, can occur even if the electricity does not pass through the vital organs or nerves
Energy Isolation / Lockout Tagout Program (EI/LOTO)
De-energizing exposed electrical components is the preferred and primary method of electrical hazard control at Cal Maritime. The Cal Maritime Energy Isolation / Lock-out Tag-out Program details the procedures for de-energizing and locking out all sources of energy prior to working on any electrical equipment.
Engineering controls are the primary control measure used to reduce the potential for direct contact with exposed and energized electrical components. Engineering controls include, but are not limited to the following:
Qualified workers who are potentially exposed to electrical hazards that cannot be controlled through EI/LOTO or some engineering means are provided with and properly use tooling and personal protective equipment that is appropriate for the specific work to be performed and the associated hazard level. PPE may include isolative gloves, face protection, flame-resistant clothing, insulated tools, non-conductive shoes, insulated floor mats, etc.
Electrical safe work practices are applied during analysis, diagnostic, troubleshooting, and manipulative work on energized equipment by a qualified person, having been trained and briefed by a knowledgeable supervisor prior to commencement of the specific tasks the Supervisor/Project Manager authorizes. Work is only performed on energized electrical circuits or components when it is demonstrated that de-energization introduces additional or increased hazards, or is infeasible due to equipment design or operational limitations. If work must be done "hot", then application of the "hot work permit" process outlined in this program must be followed.
Only those persons who are both "qualified" and "authorized" may install, fabricate, repair, test, calibrate, or modify electrical or electronics wiring, devices, systems, or equipment on Cal Maritime facilities or property.
EXAMPLE: To help understand this concept, an example of this process in everyday life is that someone with a valid driver's license is ‘qualified' by the state to drive a vehicle on public roads through a series of book and road tests. But, they then must be ‘authorized' to drive a specific vehicle by the owner of that vehicle. Otherwise, "unauthorized" operation is considered auto- theft even though they're ‘qualified' to operate a vehicle.
Similarly, a person may have the training and skills to be "qualified" by their Supervisor to work on certain hazard-levels of electrical work, but may not be "authorized" by a Project Manager to do the work on that Project Manager's job-site.
Concerning Electrical Safety, a "qualified" and "authorized" person is an individual formally recognized as:
A person can be "qualified" and then "authorized" to work on specific equipment, or in certain locations, or on certain projects but not the other way around. Persons may be "qualified" and then be "authorized" to work on certain equipment or projects in one work situation or location, but not authorized for another situation or location even though voltages and other electrical hazards and safe- work methods for both situations may be similar.
"Qualification" is generally approved and documented by the person's Supervisor while "Authorization" is generally approved by a Project Manager, Building Manager, PI, etc… In some cases, this may be the same person. In many cases, it may not be the same person.
General Guidelines for "Qualifying" Personnel
Qualification for electrical or electronics work is determined by the employee's Supervisor or a Project Manager. It is based upon a risk review of known electrical hazards in the work place versus the known technical knowledge and safe-work expertise of the "qualified" worker.
A worker is determined "qualified" by the Project Manager or their Supervisor, when they can demonstrate adequate knowledge to work safely with electricity through a combination of classroom training (including required periodic retraining), formal electrical trade recognition, military, college or other training, work experience, and on-the-job training. Formal training can be the completion of apprenticeship, journeyman or comparable training. Experience may include formal technical related education courses and hands-on field or classroom lab work that may or may not result in licenses or certifications.
Specific "Qualifying Criteria"
Supervisors / Project Managers use the following guidelines to determine whether an individual is "qualified" to perform specific electrical work. Different subsets of these criteria are selected according to the exact nature of the task; however, some analysis is always performed, no matter how minor the job. If the supervisor cannot verify a person's qualifications, assistance from the Electrical Engineer or the SRM should be obtained. At a minimum, the documentation of an employee's qualifications considers:
If the person will be permitted to work within the Limited Approach Boundary of exposed energized parts operating at 50 volts or more, the person is at a minimum additionally trained in Cal Maritime's Electrical Hot Work Procedure as outlined in this program.
General Guidelines for "Authorizing" Personnel
Authorization to perform electrical or electronics work by a person at Cal Maritime is determined by their Supervisor in conjunction with the Project Manager, and is based on the known ability of the person to safely perform specific tasks around specific known hazards at specific locations, or specific equipment, or on specific job sites. In many situations, the Supervisor and the Project Manager may be the same person. But, in situations where they are two different people, a meeting to assess project hazards and needed qualifications to complete safe electrical work must be held between the Supervisor and the Project Manager before "authorizing" a "qualified" person to conduct electrical work on the Project Manager's project.
Cal Maritime Project Managers who engage the services of outside contractors who perform work on or near energized electrical components must assure these contractors are appropriately "qualified" before "authorizing" their work on specific projects.
Specific Authorizing Personnel Criteria
Only persons who are "Authorized" may conduct Electrical and/or Electronic work, or engage in Energy Isolation / Lock out-Tag out processes on Cal Maritime facilities / property. Authorized Person(s) may develop location-specific safe-work procedures and conduct annual audits on existing procedures as detailed below.
The Supervisor / Project Manager "authorizes" persons to perform work tasks only if they are satisfied that all relevant safe-work criteria are met concerning a specific job-site or location. On-the-job orientation for specified equipment, types of equipment, or specific facility location(s) is documented to ensure that training is adequate and consistent for all personnel with similar tasks. This documentation is reviewed and approved by a person who is knowledgeable in safe electrical work practices, and is familiar with the hazards involved in the work. This orientation / training covers:
Cal Maritime Project Managers who engage the services of outside electrical contractors must assure they are appropriately "Qualified" before "Authorizing" them to work on campus when seeking a Purchase Requisition for Contracted Services.
Contractors may be engaged to modify, install or repair premises wiring or electrical equipment at Cal Maritime under purchase orders, service contracts or blanket purchase orders for service. To safely control this process the person initiating the purchase request for these services are responsible for completing the following supporting documents:
Other contractor-specific qualifications may be used if deemed as equivalent and agreed to in writing by the SRM and/or the Electrical Engineer. In addition, SRM or other management may impose additional safety requirements on the work to ensure that the work is done safely, and does not present an unexpected hazard to anyone.
Only qualified and authorized personnel are allowed to perform electrical wiring or other work directly connected to any facility electrical distribution system (premises wiring as defined by the CEC).
Premises wiring includes that portion of utilization equipment that is permanently connected (hard- wired) to the facility electrical distribution system, viewed from the utilization equipment's first disconnect (or circuit breaker) looking backward into the premises wiring. Connection to, and diagnosis and repair of, circuit breakers in building electrical panels may only be done by specified qualified and authorized electrical workers.
Who approves "Hot Work":
Cal Maritime work crews and / or contractors must coordinate their work with the Cal Maritime Project Manager and must not perform any Hazard Class B, C, or D Electrical Hot Work without prior submission and subsequent approval of a completed Hot Work Permit or previously approved equivalent) to the Cal Maritime Electrical Engineer and Cal Maritime Project Manager.
No work requiring EI - LOTO or shut down of campus facilities will be performed without prior submission and subsequent approval of a completed Shutdown Request Form to the Cal Maritime Electrical Engineer and/or Facility Manager. The Cal Maritime Project Manager, Electrical Engineer, Safety Engineer or other management may impose additional safety requirements on the work to ensure that the work is done safely and does not present an unexpected hazard to anyone. This may include providing additional safeguards such as protective barriers, posting a Cal Maritime qualified person at the work site to control access, or other safety measures as may be required to ensure safe working conditions for Cal Maritime personnel and contract workers.
Who approves contractor work:
When contractors modify, install or repair premises wiring at Cal Maritime under purchase orders, service contracts or blanket purchase orders, the Cal Maritime Project Manager must know the nature and extent of work to be done including associated hazards. The Cal Maritime Project Manager informs contractors of known hazards, and contractors must follow the safety requirements and procedures of the contractor's IIPP safe-work practices to provide a level of electrical safety consistent with this program and the requirements of the State of California.
Capital Projects – Hot Work Exception:
It is the responsibility of the Cal Maritime "Capital Projects" Project Manager to initiate and coordinate with SRM any "Capital Projects Hot Work" and cannot delegate this responsibility to the Contractor. For situations where Contractors are working on large projects that routinely require Electrical Hot Work Permits, project contractors may perform this work under their local (job site) Hot- Work Permits if their work:
Only qualified persons may fabricate, modify, install or repair electronic or electrical equipment used at Cal Maritime. Supervisors are responsible for ensuring that only qualified persons under their supervision are assigned to work on electronic or electrical equipment at Cal Maritime. The supervisor ensures the qualifications of these employees are documented.
Who approves "Hot Work":
Cal Maritime researchers and / or contractors working for researchers must not perform any Hazard Class B, C, or D Electrical Hot Work without prior submission and subsequent approval of a completed Hot Work Permit or previously approved equivalent to the SRM.
Who approves Isolation or Shut-down work:
No work requiring isolation or shut down of campus facilities will be performed without prior submission and subsequent approval of a completed Shutdown Request Form to the Cal Maritime Electrical Engineer. The Cal Maritime Project Manager, Electrical Engineer, Safety Engineer or other management may impose additional safety requirements on the work to ensure that the work is done safely and does not present an unexpected hazard to anyone as necessary. This may include providing additional safeguards such as protective barriers, posting a Cal Maritime qualified person at the work site to control access, or other safety measures as may be required to ensure safe working conditions for Cal Maritime personnel and contract workers.
Who approves contractor work:
When researchers employ contractors to modify, install or repair electronic or electrical equipment at Cal Maritime under purchase orders, service contracts or blanket service purchase orders, the Cal Maritime Property Custodian of the equipment must know the nature and extent of work to be done including associated hazards. The Cal Maritime Property Custodian informs researchers and contractors of known hazards.
Contractors must follow the safety requirements and procedures of the contractor's IIPP safe-work practices to provide a level of electrical safety and hazard control consistent with this Program.
Contractors must coordinate their work with the with the Property Custodian and shall not perform any Hazard Class B, C, or D Electrical Hot Work without prior submission and approval of a completed Hot Work Permit to the SRM. No work requiring isolation or shut down of campus facilities will be performed without prior submission and approval of a completed Shutdown Request Form or previously approved equivalent) to the Cal Maritime Electrical Engineer. The Cal Maritime Equipment Custodian, campus Electrical Engineer, SRM or other management may impose additional safety requirements on the work to ensure that the work is done safely and does not present an unexpected hazard to anyone as necessary. This may include providing additional safeguards such as protective barriers, posting a Cal Maritime qualified person at the work site to control access, or other safety measures as may be required to ensure safe working conditions for Cal Maritime personnel and contract workers.
All researchers who design, develop and install electrical equipment as part of their research, even as temporary installations, must design and install their apparatus to comply with the guidance of
Electrical Equipment Safe Work Space Requirements, and Research Equipment Fabrication and Maintenance. In addition, there are detailed requirements for developing / designing / installing / maintaining / modifying the following types of electrical equipment as part of research:
Electrical Safe Work-Job Site Procedures
All researchers, PIs, staff, project managers, contractors and students with potential for exposure to electrical hazards must:
It is Cal Maritime policy to de-energize live parts whenever possible before anyone works on or near them. This is the preferred method for protecting everyone from electrical hazards. Personnel follow the Cal Maritime Energy Isolation – Lock out Tag out Program to safely de-energize live parts prior to working on them.
Personnel are permitted to work on or near exposed live parts only if it is demonstrated that de-energization:
If it has been demonstrated that a work task cannot be accomplished in a verified de-energize condition, then Cal Maritime "Energized "Hot Work" Electrical Work Procedures must be followed.
Energized parts that operate at less than 50 volts need not be de-energized if there is no increased exposure to electrical burns or to explosion blast due to electric arcs. Exceptions to this exemption include low-voltage DC battery banks with available amperages in excess of 1000 amps. This exception may also not apply for situations less than 1000 amps in some situations.
"Hot" electrical work is defined as any kind of work on conductor(s) that are energized and have 50 volts or greater, AND 5 milli-Amps or greater, of electrical potential. If conductors are isolated per the Cal Maritime Energy Isolation Program using OSHA-approved Lock out / Tag out techniques, then the circuits are NOT considered ‘hot' and general work may commence without a ‘hot work' permit.
This "Hot Work Permit" procedure DOES NOT APPLY to research apparatus and research instrumentation manufactured by a reputable manufacturer that is approved by an NRTL. The NRTL must approve the apparatus as having continuous safety-monitoring ground-fault circuit interruption of exposed conductors powered by the apparatus, and built into the control circuit of the apparatus. Examples of such apparatus include Electrophoresis Power Supplies and newer High-Pot Test apparatus built since 2005 with such safety-protection built in.
Cal Maritime Electrical "Hot Work Policy":
It is University policy to only work energized or ‘hot' when no other means to isolate and lock out electrical circuits is practical. When the need to do electrical ‘hot' work is encountered, any Cal Maritime Project Manager, PI, Supervisor, or other person conducting, ordering or procuring electrical hot work, must complete the following procedural steps to conduct a hazard analysis of the electrical work, and assure properly trained and prepared personnel with all needed safe-work hazard controls are oriented and present prior to commencing ‘hot' work at any jobsite or on any equipment.
Who May Conduct Electrical "Hot Work":
Only "Authorized and Qualified" personnel are allowed to do "hot work". Only knowledgeable Supervisors and/or an Electrical Engineer may authorize and sign a "Hot Work Permit" or "Authorize and Qualify" a person to conduct Electrical Hot Work.
Exemption of "Who May Conduct Hot Work":
"Testing and Troubleshooting" often require a circuit and equipment to be temporarily energized. The "Testing and Troubleshooting" exemption applies only when no actual modification or manipulating of energized electrical conductors or components will take place, and equipment / safe work practices are otherwise under Cal Maritime Energy Isolation / Lock-out Tag out program rules.
Please refer to the end of this Appendix for definitions of terms used in this Hot Work Procedure document.
Training requirements for personnel on the sections of this program that impact their work are noted below. Training is based upon hazard exposure assessment, and may be delivered every three years up to annually as noted below by job activity, or in the "Training Qualifications" for personnel "qualified to work hot". Training methods may include the online LMS, general safety training in offices, labs, shops and work environments, familiarization with Cal Maritime's Energy Isolation / LOTO Program, specific training on the procedures outlined in this program, as well as work-site tail-gate meetings and safe- work planning efforts. Based upon the type of electrical work being considered, review the training requirements below to assure adequate training for you, your department and your co-worker
The California State Department of Industrial Relations, Division of Occupational Safety & Health, CCR Title 8 Regulations references the following recommendations regarding personal protective equipment.