The Heat Illness Prevention Standard (CCR, Title 8, Section 3395) requires all employers with outdoor worksites to take certain steps to prevent heat related illness. Heat related illness is a serious medical condition that results when the body is unable to cool itself sufficiently through sweating. Both personal and environmental factors can contribute to the likelihood of developing heat related illnesses which includes heat stress, heat exhaustion, heat cramps, heat syncope (fainting) and ultimately, heat stroke. The purpose of this program is to teach supervisors and employees how to reduce the risk of heat related illness, and respond properly should heat related illness occur.
Department Heads and Chairs
Directors and Department Chairs are responsible for:
- Providing the necessary resources to ensure the health and safety of their employees;
- Identifying individuals as supervisors and ensuring they are trained on their health and safety responsibilities;
- Ensuring departmental compliance with campus health and safety policies and procedures;
- Ensuring hazards workplace hazards are identified and controlled.
Managers, Supervisors, and Principal Investigators
Supervisors of employees who perform outdoor work, or indoor work where heat related illness could reasonably be anticipated to occur, are responsible for:
- Ensuring their units understand and comply with the requirements of this program;
- Ensuring that there is a written Heat Illness Prevention Plan that covers each outdoor worksite they are responsible for (see Attachment B&C);
- Developing and implementing procedures to comply with the requirement of this program as needed;
- Ensuring employees have completed documented Heat Illness Prevention training;
- Being aware of risk factors that contribute to heat illness;
- Reducing the risk of heat illness by taking special precautions when necessary;
- Being alert for the signs and symptoms of heat illness in employees;
- Allowing employees acclimate to working in hot conditions;
- Making sure employees working in hot conditions are accounted for at the end of the work shift;
- Ensuring employees have access to potable drinking water at all times;
- Ensuring employees have the necessary Personal Protective Equipment to reduce heat stress (sun hats, light colored clothing, etc.) when needed;
- Monitoring weather conditions and implement High-heat Procedures when temperatures equal or exceed 95 degrees Fahrenheit;
- Ensuring procedures for contacting emergency medical services are in place, and if necessary, arrange for the transportation of employees to a point where they can be reached by an emergency medical provider;
- Knowing what to do and how to summon emergency responders should a heat illness emergency occur.
Employees, Students and Volunteers
Employees, Students and Volunteers are responsible for:
- Understanding and complying with campus health and safety policies and procedures;
- Notifying their supervisor or SRM about any hazardous conditions observed on the worksite;
- Informing their supervisors of any factors that may increase their risk of heat related illness;
- Reporting the signs or symptoms of heat illness in themselves, or others, to their supervisor or SRM immediately.
Types of Heat Illness and First Aid There are several types of heat-related illness. The following sections will explain the symptoms, causes and first aid procedures for each type of heat-related illness. All signs or symptoms of heat illness should be reported to a supervisor immediately. If a supervisor observes, or any employee reports, any signs or symptoms of heat illness in an employee, the supervisor shall take immediate action commensurate with the severity of the illness. If the signs or symptoms are indicators of severe heat illness (such as, but not limited to, decreased level of consciousness, staggering, vomiting, disorientation, irrational behavior or convulsions), emergency response procedures shall be implemented. An employee exhibiting signs or symptoms of heat illness shall be monitored and shall not be left alone or sent home without being offered onsite first aid and/or being provided with emergency medical services.
Heat stroke is the most serious heat-related disorder. It occurs when the body becomes unable to control its temperature; the body's temperature rises rapidly, the sweating mechanism fails, and the body is unable to cool down. When heat stroke occurs, the body temperature can rise to 106 degrees Fahrenheit or higher within 10 to 15 minutes. Heat stroke can cause death or permanent disability if emergency treatment is not given.
Heat Stroke Symptoms:
- Hot, dry skin or profuse sweating
- Throbbing headache
- High body temperature
- Slurred speech Heat Stroke First Aid:
- Contact emergency medical services and notify supervisor. Move the individual to a cool, shaded or air conditioned area.
- Cool the individual using methods such as:
- Loosening or removing clothing
- Soaking their clothes with water.
- Spraying, sponging, or showering them with water.
- Fanning their body
Heat exhaustion is the body's response to an excessive loss of water and salt, usually through excessive sweating. Workers most prone to heat exhaustion are those that are elderly, have high blood pressure, and those working in a hot environment.
Heat Exhaustion Symptoms:
- Heavy sweating
- Extreme weakness or fatigue
- Dizziness, confusion
- Clammy, moist skin
- Pale or flushed complexion
- Muscle cramps
- Slightly elevated body temperature
- Fast and shallow breathing
Heat Exhaustion First Aid:
- Contact emergency medical services and notify supervisor.
- Move individual to a cool, shaded or air conditioned area and allow them to rest.
- Encourage individual to drink water or other cool, nonalcoholic and non-caffeinated beverages.
- Cool the individual using methods such as:
- Loosening or removing clothing
- Soaking their clothes with water.
- Spraying, sponging, or showering them with water.
- Fanning their body.
Heat syncope is a fainting (syncope) episode or dizziness that usually occurs with prolonged standing or sudden rising from a sitting or lying position. Factors that may contribute to heat syncope include dehydration and lack of acclimatization.
Heat Syncope Symptoms:
- Fainting Heat Syncope First Aid:
- Contact emergency medical services and notify supervisor.
- Have individual sit or lie down in a cool, shaded or air conditioned area and allow them to rest. · Encourage individual to drink water or other cool, nonalcoholic and non-caffeinated beverages
Heat cramps usually affect workers who sweat a lot during strenuous activity. This sweating depletes the body's salt and moisture levels. Low salt levels in muscles causes painful cramps. Heat cramps may also be a symptom of heat exhaustion.
Heat Cram Symptoms:
- Muscle pain or spasms usually in the abdomen, arms, or legs.
- Heat Cramp First Aid:
- Stop all activity, and sit in a cool place.
- Drink clear juice or a sports beverage.
- Do not return to strenuous work for a few hours after the cramps subside because further exertion may lead to heat exhaustion or heat stroke.
· Seek medical attention if any of the following apply:
- The worker has heart problems.
- The worker is on a low-sodium diet.
- The cramps do not subside within one hour.
Heat rash occurs when sweat ducts become clogged and the sweat can't get to the surface of the skin. Instead, it becomes trapped beneath the skin's surface causing a mild inflammation or rash.
Heat Rash Symptoms:
- Heat rash looks like a red cluster of pimples or small blisters.
- It is more likely to occur on the neck and upper chest, in the groin, under the breasts, and in elbow creases.
Heat Rash First Aid:
- Work in a cooler, less humid environment when possible.
- Keep the affected area dry.
- Dusting powder may be used to increase comfort.
Personal and Environmental Risk Factors
There are a number of factors that can increase the likelihood of an individual experiencing heat related illness. Often heat illness is a result of a combination of environmental and personal risk factors. Environmental Risk Factors Environmental risk factors are working conditions that increase the likelihood of a person experiencing heat related illness.
- Warm temperatures
- High humidity
- Direct exposure to the sun or other heat sources
- Limited air movement
Personal Risk Factors
Personal factors affect how well an individual responds to heat. They include: Age, weight, and physical condition
- Degree of acclimatization
- Consumption of water, alcohol, drugs and caffeine · Use of medications that affect tolerance to heat
Job Related Risk Factors
An individual's job duties may increase the likelihood of experiencing heat related illness, such as:
- Physical exertion and duration
- Protective clothing and protective equipment worn by employees
At Risk Employees Although Cal Maritime typically enjoys a mild climate, there are times when environmental conditions may increase the risk of heat related illness. The following are examples of groups of employees who may be susceptible to these conditions:
- Athletics Staff
- Delivery Personnel
- Emergency Response Personnel
- Events Staff
- Facilities Management Employees
- Field Researchers
- Hazardous Materials Workers
- Kitchen Staff
- Housing Services Employees
- Parking Services Employees
- Police Officers
- Other individuals not listed who work outdoors, or in indoor areas where heat stress is likely to occur (kitchens, boiler rooms, etc.).
Heat Illness Prevention Procedures
Departments and their supervisors are responsible for developing, implementing, and maintaining, effective procedures to reduce the risk of heat related illness. These procedures shall be in writing and include specific heat illness prevention measures and emergency response procedures for each worksite location. Supervisors and employees should review their procedures on a regular basis, and update them as needed. The Department of Safety & Risk Management is available, upon request, to help evaluate job tasks, procedures and environmental conditions
Heat Illness Prevention Plan
A Heat Illness Prevention Plan shall be developed and implemented at each outdoor worksite, and indoor worksites, where it could be reasonably anticipated that heat related illness could occur. The plan shall be in writing in both English and the language understood by the majority of the employees and shall be made available at the worksite to employees and to representatives of the Division upon request.
The Heat Illness Prevention Plan at a minimum shall contain:
- · Procedures for the provision of water and access to shade;
- · Acclimatization procedures;
- · Emergency Response Procedures;
- · High heat procedures, where applicable.
To assist Departments and Supervisors in meeting these requirements SRM has developed the Cal Maritime Campus Heat Illness Prevention Plan which covers most on-campus worksites, and a Worksite Specific Heat Illness Prevention Plan Worksheet for off-campus locations and other locations not adequately covered by the campus plan. Supervisors must ensure that there is a written Heat Illness Prevention Plan for each worksite under their responsibility, and employees covered by the plan have review it and are trained on its procedures prior to commencing outdoor work.
Heat Illness Prevention Measures
Supervisors are responsible for developing procedures for the following measures and ensuring they are implemented, as appropriate, to help prevent heat illness among employees:
Monitor Weather Conditions
Supervisors are responsible for monitoring weather conditions and scheduling work appropriately. All employees shall be closely observed by a supervisor or designee during a heat wave. Make sure to monitor the weather at the specific location(s) where work activities are occurring. Prior to each workday, have a designated person check the weather forecast in the areas of work activities. The weather can be monitored by using local radio and television stations, websites, and electronic or other devices. See the References and Resources section for some specific weather monitoring resources.
There is no absolute temperature cutoff, below which, heat illness ceases to be a risk. Heavy work conducted in high humidity, especially if workers are wearing protective clothing or are not acclimated, can present a risk even at ambient temperatures of 70°F or below. Whenever possible, schedule outdoor work during cooler times of the day to reduce the risk of heat illness.
Acclimatization is a process by which the body adjusts to increased heat exposure. Employees are more likely to develop heat related illness if they not allowed or encouraged to take it easy when a heat wave strikes, or when they start a new job that exposes them to heat. Cal/OSHA reported that 80% of the heat illness cases investigated in 2005 involved employees that had been on the job for fewer than 4 days; 46% of the incidents occurred on the worker's first day on the job. Acclimatization is fully achieved in most people within 4 to 14 days of regular work involving at least 2 hours per day in the heat.
Supervisors shall ensure employees have access to potable drinking water at all times. Drinking water shall be fresh, pure, suitably cool, and provided to employees free of charge. The water shall be located as close as practicable to the areas where employees are working. Where drinking water is not plumbed or otherwise continuously supplied, it shall be provided in sufficient quantity at the beginning of the work shift to provide one quart per employee per hour for drinking for the entire shift. Employers may begin the shift with smaller quantities of water if they have effective procedures for replenishment during the shift as needed to allow employees to drink one quart or more per hour. The frequent drinking of water shall be encouraged.
Employees shall be allowed and encouraged to take a preventative cool-down rest in the shade for a period of no less than five minutes at a time when they feel the need to do so to protect themselves from overheating. An individual employee who takes a preventative cool-down rest (A) shall be monitored and asked if he or she is experiencing symptoms of heat illness; (B) shall be encouraged to remain in the shade; and (C) shall not be ordered back to work until any signs or symptoms of heat illness have abated, but in no event less than 5 minutes in addition to the time needed to access the shade.
Supervisors shall ensure shade is available to their employees when the temperature exceeds 80 degrees Fahrenheit, and upon employee request when temperatures are below 80 degrees Fahrenheit. When the outdoor temperature in the work area exceeds 80 degrees Fahrenheit, the employer shall have and maintain one or more areas with shade at all times while employees are present that are either open to the air or provided with ventilation or cooling. The amount of shade present shall be at least enough to accommodate the number of employees on recovery or rest periods, so that they can sit in a normal posture fully in the shade without having to be in physical contact with each other. The shade shall be located as close as practicable to the areas where employees are working. Subject to the same specifications, the amount of shade present during meal periods shall be at least enough to accommodate the number of employees on the meal period who remain onsite.
Supervisors should continuously monitor employees closely for signs and symptoms of heat illness. During heat waves and with new employees, supervisors must be extra-vigilant. All employees shall be closely observed by a supervisor or designee during a heat wave. A "heat wave" means any day in which the predicted high temperature for the day will be at least 80 degrees Fahrenheit and at least ten degrees Fahrenheit higher than the average high daily temperature in the preceding five days. An employee who has been newly assigned to a high heat area shall be closely observed by a supervisor or designee for the first 14 days of the employee's employment.
Emergency Response Procedures
As part of their written Heat Illness Prevention Plan, departments and supervisors shall develop and implement effective worksite emergency response procedures. Emergency response procedures shall include:
- How effective communication by voice, observation, or electronic means will be maintained so that employees at the work site can contact a supervisor or emergency medical services when necessary. An electronic device, such as a cell phone or text messaging device, may be used for this purpose only if reception in the area is reliable.
- If an electronic device will not furnish reliable communication in the work area, the employer will ensure a means of summoning emergency medical services.
- How to respond to signs and symptoms of possible heat illness, including but not limited to first aid measures and how emergency medical services will be provided.
- How to contact emergency medical services and, if necessary, how employees will be transported to a place where they can be reached by an emergency medical provider.
- How in the event of an emergency, clear and precise directions to the work site can and will be provided as needed to emergency responders.
In non-remote areas throughout the United States, emergency medical services are generally available by calling 911. Supervisors are to ensure that employees are able to provide clear concise directions to their worksite. In remote field locations, developing procedures for emergency medical services may require extensive planning, and supervisors must ensure employees are informed of exactly how and where medical attention may be received. Always make sure employees have communication means and knowledge of how to guide emergency services to their location.
If a supervisor observes, or any employee reports, any signs or symptoms of heat illness in an employee, the supervisor shall take immediate action commensurate with the severity of the illness. If the signs or symptoms are indicators of severe heat illness (such as, but not limited to, decreased level of consciousness, staggering, vomiting, disorientation, irrational behavior or convulsions), emergency response procedures shall be implemented. An employee exhibiting signs or symptoms of heat illness shall be monitored and shall not be left alone or sent home without being offered onsite first aid and/or being provided with emergency medical services. Supervisors must reiterate to all employees the importance of immediately reporting any symptoms or signs of heat illness in themselves or co-workers and remind employees what to do in case emergency medical treatment is needed.
On-campus procedures for responding to heat illness:
- Dial 707-654-1111 for campus police dispatch or 911 for emergency medical help;
- Tell the dispatcher this is a heat related illness;
- Provide information on the exact location of the incident using maps and building information which are readily displayed around campus if necessary.
- Provide first aid to victim until emergency responders arrive
- Notify your supervisor and contact Cal Maritime Workers' Compensation in the HR Department.
High-heat procedures are only required for workers who perform jobs in the industries listed below. However, it is recommended that similar procedures be implemented for non-required industries to reduce the risk of heat related illness whenever possible.
- Oil and gas extraction
- Transportation or delivery of agricultural products, construction materials or other heavy materials (e.g. furniture, lumber, freight, cargo, cabinets, industrial or commercial materials), except for employment that consists of operating an air-conditioned vehicle and does not include loading or unloading.
Supervisors of employees that fall under the categories list above shall implement high-heat procedures when the temperature equals or exceeds 95 degrees Fahrenheit. These procedures must include the following to the extent practicable:
- Scheduling work during the cooler hours of the day, or if possible postponing work until ambient temperatures decrease.
- Ensuring that effective communication by voice, observation, or electronic means is maintained so that employees at the work site can contact a supervisor when necessary. An electronic device, such as a cell phone or text messaging device, may be used for this purpose only if reception in the area is reliable.
- Remind employees throughout the work shift to drink plenty of water.
- Designating one or more employees on each worksite as authorized to call for emergency medical services, and allowing other employees to call for emergency services when no designated employee is available.
- Pre-shift meetings before the commencement of work to review the high heat procedures, encourage employees to drink plenty of water, and remind employees of their right to take a cool-down rest when necessary.
- Observing employees for alertness and signs or symptoms of heat illness. The employer shall ensure effective employee observation/monitoring by implementing one or more of the following:
a. Supervisor or designee observation of 20 or fewer employees, or
b. Mandatory buddy system, or
c. Regular communication with sole employee such as by radio or cellular phone, or
d. Other effective means of observation.
For employees employed in agriculture, the following shall also apply: When temperatures reach 95 degrees or above, the employer shall ensure that the employee takes a minimum ten minute net preventative cool-down rest period every two hours. The preventative cool-down rest period required by this paragraph may be provided concurrently with any other meal or rest period required by Industrial Welfare Commission Order No. 14 (8 CCR 11140) if the timing of the preventative cool-down rest period coincides with a required meal or rest period thus resulting in no additional preventative cool-down rest period required in an eight hour workday. If the workday will extend beyond eight hours, then an additional preventative cool-down rest period will be required at the conclusion of the eighth hour of work; and if the workday extends beyond ten hours, then another preventative cool-down rest period will be required at the conclusion of the tenth hour and so on. For purposes of this section, preventative cool-down rest period has the same meaning as "recovery period" in Labor Code Section 226.7(a)
Departments shall ensure effective documented Heat Illness Prevention Training meeting the requirements below is provided to all employees, and supervisors of employees, who perform outdoor work, or indoor work where heat related illness could reasonably be anticipated to occur.
All employees, supervisory and non-supervisory, shall receive training on the following:
- The Department's procedures for complying with the requirements of this standard, including, but not limited to, the Department's responsibility to provide water, shade, cool-down rests, and access to first aid as well as the employees' right to exercise their rights under this standard without retaliation;
- The different types of heat illness, and the common signs and symptoms of heat illness, and appropriate first aid and/or emergency responses to the different types of heat illness, and in addition, that heat illness may progress quickly from mild symptoms and signs to serious and life threatening illness;
- The environmental and personal risk factors for heat illness, as well as the added burden of heat load on the body caused by exertion, clothing, and personal protective equipment;
- The importance of frequent consumption of small quantities of water, up to 4 cups per hour, when the work environment is hot and employees are likely to be sweating more than usual in the performance of their duties;
- Procedures for the provision of water and access to shade;
- The concept, importance, and methods of acclimatization.
- The importance of immediately reporting the symptoms or signs of heat illness in themselves, or in co-workers;
- The Department's procedures for responding to signs or symptoms of possible heat illness, including how emergency medical services will be provided should they become necessary;
- Procedures for ensuring that, in the event of an emergency, clear and precise directions to the work site can and will be provided as needed to emergency responders. These procedures shall include designating a person to be available to ensure that emergency procedures are invoked when appropriate.
- Special procedures for contacting emergency medical services, and if necessary, for transporting employees to a point where they can be reached by an emergency medical service provider;
- High heat procedures, if applicable.
Additional Supervisor Heat Illness Training
Prior to supervising employees who perform outdoor work, or indoor work where heat related illness could reasonably be anticipated to occur, Departments shall ensure their supervisors receive effective documented training on the following topics:
- Supervisory requirements and responsibilities under the Cal Maritime Heat Illness Prevention Program and Heat Illness Prevention Standard;
- The procedures the supervisor is to follow when an employee exhibits symptoms consistent with possible heat illness, including emergency response procedures;
- How to monitor weather reports and how to respond to hot weather advisories.
| means temporary adaptation of the body to work in the heat that occurs gradually when a person is exposed to it. Acclimatization peaks in most people within four to fourteen days of regular work for at least two hours per day in the heat.|
| Environmental Risk Factors|| means working conditions that create the possibility that heat illness could occur, including air temperature, relative humidity, radiant heat from the sun and other sources, conductive heat sources such as the ground, air movement, workload severity and duration, protective clothing and personal protective equipment worn by employees.|
| Heat Illness|| means a serious medical condition resulting from the body's inability to cope with a particular heat load, and includes heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat syncope and heat stroke.|
| Heat Wave|| means any day in which the predicted high temperature for the day will be at least 80 degrees Fahrenheit and at least ten degrees Fahrenheit higher than the average high daily temperature in the preceding five days.|
| Personal Risk Factors|| means factors such as an individual's age, degree of acclimatization, health, water consumption, alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption, and use of prescription medications that affect the body's water retention or other physiological responses to heat.|
| Shade|| means blockage of direct sunlight. Shade is considered sufficient when objects do not cast a shadow in the area of blocked sunlight. Shade is not adequate when heat in the area of shade defeats the purpose of shade, which is to allow the body to cool. For example, a car sitting in the sun does not provide acceptable shade to a person inside it, unless the car is running with air conditioning. Shade may be provided by any natural or artificial means as long as it does not expose employees to unsafe or unhealthy conditions, or deter or discourage access or use.|
| Temperature|| means the dry bulb temperature in degrees Fahrenheit obtainable by using a thermometer to measure the outdoor temperature in an area where there is no shade. While the temperature measurement must be taken in an area with full sunlight, the bulb or sensor of the thermometer should be shielded while taking the measurement, e.g., with the hand or some other object, from direct contact by sunlight.|
Cal Maritime and its subcontractors shall comply with the following requirements.
In case of conflict or overlap of the below references, the most stringent provision shall apply.
Cal/OSHA Heat Illness Prevention Standard - California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section 3395, California Department of Industrial Relations (http://www.dir.ca.gov/title8/3395.html)
Cal/OSHA Heat-Related Illness Prevention and Information (http://www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/heatillnessinfo.html)
NOAA Heat Wave Resources
NOAA Heat Index Chart
NOAA Weather Information and Forecasting
Weather Underground Information