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Welding & Hot Work Safety Plan

Last Updated: 3/07/2018

The purpose of the Injury Illness Prevention Program (IIPP) is to outline Cal Maritime's environmental health and safety requirements, expectations, and responsibilities in order to achieve effective campus safety performance through Integrated Safety Management (ISM). The Welding & Hot Work Safety Plan is a subject specific component the supports the overall University IIPP.

Note: Training Ship Golden Bear (TSGB) is regulated under MARAD. For operations pertaining to the TSGB  -  Refer to Shoreside Administration Manual (SAM) and Vessel Operations Manual (VOM).

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Cal Maritime is dedicated to the protection of our employees from occupational injuries and illnesses. Cal Maritime is responsible for providing a safe working environment, and the employees have and must assume the responsibility for working safely.
The objective of this program is to supplement our safety policy by providing specific standards regarding Hot Work and to ensure that each employee is adequately trained and fully aware of safety procedures associated with Hot Work. Welding and Hot Work, such as brazing or grinding presents a significant opportunity for fire and injury. University employees or contractors must apply all precautions of this program prior to commencing any welding or hot work. References: Title 8 CCR Sections 1536, 4799, 4812-16, 4838, 4845-48, and 5150 concurs with OSHA 29 CFR 1910.252.
Elimination of injuries and illnesses improves employee morale, improves customer service, improves product quality, work quality, and helps to reduce or mitigate Worker's Compensation costs. This Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) serves as a tool to increase employee protection, and to reduce jobsite hazards.
Employees are required to comply with the guidelines set forth, and to comply with the instruction of the Supervisor. In the event an unsafe condition arises in the absence of the supervisor, employees should alert the lead persons on the jobsite and Risk Management as well as the University police immediately. Employees should also alert co-workers of any unsafe conditions that arise.


What is Hot Work ?

Hot work is defined as cutting and welding operations for construction/demolition activities that involve the use of portable gas or arc welding equipment, or involve soldering, grinding, or any other similar activities producing a spark, flame, or heat.  Hot work introduces significant fire hazards into Cal Maritime buildings and vessels.

Hot Work Permit.

The hot work permit system is intended to educate the parties involved in any construction, of hot work hazards and to implement control measures to help mitigate them.

A hot work permit is the means by which the departments of Planning Design & Construction and SRM can stay aware and keep track of construction activities that involve hot work. The hot work permit also provides a step-by-step check list for hot work fire safety and serves as a reminder to contractors of their fire prevention responsibilities before, during, and after any hot work is conducted.

How Does the Hot Work Permit System Work?

Before a contractor can perform hot work for a Cal Maritime construction project they need to get a hot work permit.  The contractor may then perform the hot work, following the precautions outlined on the Fire Safety Precaution Checklist, and filling out the checklist. After the hot work is completed, the contractor turns the permit over to their Cal Maritime project manager.

When is a Hot Work Permit Necessary?

Hot work permits are needed for all cutting or welding activities that are conducted with portable gas or arc equipment or involve soldering, grinding, or any other similar activities producing a spark, flame, or heat on work conducting within Cal Maritime buildings or vessels.

Where is a Hot Work Permit Necessary?

Hot work permits are needed for each building where hot work will be performed (utility tunnels are considered to be separate buildings). For example, if one contractor is performing work at several different buildings for one project, a permit is necessary for each building.

Who Needs Hot Work Permits?

Hot work permits are needed for each and every contractor or sub-contractor/trade performing hot work for a project. For example, if there are three different sub-contractors/trades performing hot work on one project, each sub-contractor/trade is responsible for obtaining a permit for their own work


As outlined under the standards of Cal-OSHA TITLE 8 CCR - Article 81. General (Sections 4797 - 4799) and  Federal OSHA 29 CFR 1910.252:

• Where practical all combustibles will be relocated at least 35 feet from the work site.
• Where relocation is impractical, combustibles must be protected with flameproof covers, shielded with metal, guards, curtains or wet down to help prevent ignition of material.
• Ducts, conveyor systems, and augers that might carry sparks to distant combustibles must be protected or shut down.
• Where cutting welding is done near walls, partitions, ceilings, a roof of combustible construction, fire-resistant shield or guards will b e provided to prevent ignition
• If welding is to be done on a metal wall, partitions, ceiling, or proof, precautions must be taken to prevent ignition of combustibles on the other side, due to conductions or radiation of heat.
• Where combustibles cannot be relocated on the opposite side of work, a fire watch person will be provided on the opposite side the work.
• Welding will not be attempted on a metal partition, wall, ceiling, or roof having a covering or on walls having combustible sandwich panel construction.
• Cutting or welding on pipes or other metal in contact with combustible walls, partitions, ceiling, or roofs will not be undertaken if the work is close enough to cause ignition by combustion.
• In areas where there is dust accumulation of greater that 1/16 inch within 35 feet of the area where welding/hot works will be conducted, all dust accumulation will be cleaned up following the housekeeping program of the facility before welding/hot works are permitted.
• Suitable fire extinguishers must be provided and maintained ready for instant use.
• A fire watch person will provided during and for two hours past the completion of the welding project.
• A cutting/welding permit will be issued on all welding or cutting outside of designated welding areas.
Cutting or welding will not be permitted in the following situations:
• In areas not authorized by management
• In sprinklered building while such protection is impaired.
• In the presence of potentially explosive atmospheres.
• In areas near the storage of large quantities of exposed, ready readily ignitable materials.



Welding & Hot Work Fire Prevention Measures: Article 88. Fire Prevention in Welding and Cutting Operations (Sections 4846 - 4848)

A designated welding area should be established to meet the following requirements:
  • Floors swept and clean combustibles within 35 feet of work area.
  • Flammable and combustible liquids and material will be kept 35 feet from work area.
  • Adequate ventilation providing 20 air changes per hour, such as suction hood system should be provided to the work area.
  • At least one 10-lb dry chemical fire extinguisher should be within access of the 35 feet of work area.
  • Protective dividers such as welding curtains or non-combustible walls will be provided to contain sparks and slag to the combustible free area.


Requirements forWelding Outside Designated Areas
• Portable welding curtains or shields must be used to protect other workers in the welding area.
• A hot works permit must be completed and complied with prior to welding operation.
• Respiratory protection is mandatory unless and adequate monitored airflow away from the welder and others present can be established and maintained.
• Plastic materials must be covered with welding tarps during welding procedures
• Fire watch must be provided for all hot work operations.
Welding Standard Operation Procedures (SOP)
The Following lists Welding Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) and are applicable for all electric and gas welding. These SOP are to be posted at each Designated Welding &Hot Work Area for quick reference and review.
SOP- Electric Welding
(Title 8 CCR - Article 90. Electric Welding, Cutting and Heating (Sections 4850 - 4853)
• Perform Safety Check on all equipment
• Ensure fire extinguisher is charged and available
• Ensure electrical cord, electrode holder and cables are free from defects (no cable splices are allowed within 10 feet of the electrode holder)
• Ensure PPE (welding hood, gloves, rubber boots/soled shoes, and aprons) are available and have no defects.
• Ensure the welding unit is properly grounded
• All defective equipment must be repaired or replaced before use
• Remove flammables and combustibles
• No welding is permitted on or near containers of flammable material, combustible material or unprotected flammable structures
• Place welding screen or suitable barricade around work area to provide a fire safety zone and prevent injuries to passersby (do not block emergency exits or restrict ventilation).
• Ensure adequate ventilation and lighting
• Execute Hot Work Permit procedures
• Set Voltage Regulator no higher than the following for:
  • o   Manual Alternating Current Welders- 80 volts
  • o   Automatic Alternating Current Welders – 100 volts
  • o   Manual or automatic Direct Current Welders – 100 volts
• Uncoil and spread out welding cable
• To avoid overheating, ensure proper contact of work leads and connections, remove any metal fragments from magnetic work clamps (to avoid electric shock do not warp welding cables around a body part and avoid welding in wet conditions)
• Fire watch for one hour after welding and until all welds have cooled
• Perform final watch and terminate permit.
SOP- Gas Welding
1910.253 - Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting
1926.350 - Gas welding and cutting.
• Perform Safety Check on all equipment
• Ensure tanks have gas and fitting are tight
• Ensure fire extinguishers is charged and available
• Inspect hoses for defects
• Ensure PPE (welding hood, gloves, rubber boots/soled shoes and aprons) are available and have no defects
• All defective equipment must be repaired or replaced before use!
• Remove flammables and combustibles
• No welding is permitted on or near containers of flammable material, combustible material or unprotected flammable structures
• Place welding screen or suitable barricade around work area to provide a fire safety zone and prevent injuries to passersby (do not block emergency exits or restrict ventilation).
• Use an authorized Air Filtering Respirator, if required
• Ensure adequate ventilation and lighting
• Execute Hot Work Permit Procedures
• Open valves on oxygen and gas tanks to desired flow
• Shut tank valves and relieve hose pressure. Store Hoses.
• Fire watch for one hour after welding and until all welds have cooled.
• Perform final fire watch and terminate permit
  • Compressed Gas
    Care, Transporting, Moving and Storage
    Article 32 - §1740. Storage and Use of Cylinders / §1743. General Precautions.
    • Valve caps on cylinders must be in place and secured. Valve caps must not be used for lifting. Do not pry cylinder caps while frozen. Loosen caps with warm water.
    • Cylinders must be transported on a secured cradle only, and by tilting or rolling them.
    • Cylinders must be moved by tilting and rolling them on their bottom edges. Avoid dropping cylinders or striking other cylinders.
    • Cylinders transported by powered vehicles must be secured in a vertical position
    • Regulators must be removed and caps put in place prior to moving cylinders, unless cylinders are secured on a special carrier
    • Proper steadying devices must be used to keep cylinders from falling over while in use
    • Cylinder calves must be closed when cylinders are empty or when cylinders are moved
    • Oxygen cylinders must be stored separated from fuel gas cylinders or combustible materials a minimum distance of 20 feet or by a five foot high noncombustible barrier with a fire-resistance rating of one-half hour.
    • Cylinders stored inside building must be stored 20 feet from combustible materials where they were well protected, well ventilated, and dry. Cylinders must not be stored near elevators, stairs or gangways. Assigned storage locations must prevent cylinders from being knocked over or damaged.
    • Cylinders must be kept away from welding or cutting operations to prevent sparks, hot slag, or flame from reaching them. Fire resistant shields must be used when this impractical.
    • Cylinders must be placed away from electrical circuits. Do not strike electrodes against a cylinder to strike an arc.
    • Cylinders containing oxygen, acetylene or other fuel gas must not be used in confined spaces.
    • Cylinders must not be used as rollers or supports
    • Only the gas supplier is authorized to mix gases in a cylinder. Only the Supervisor is authorized to have cylinders refilled.
    • No damaged or defective cylinder may be used.
Use of Fuel Gas - 1910.253 - Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting.
• California State University-San Marcos employees will be instructed in the safe use of fuel gas.
• Valves must be opened slightly and closed immediately before a regulator is connected to the cylinder. This is called "cracking" which clears the valve of dust and dirt.
The employee must stand to the side of the outlet, not in front. Valves must be cracked away from welding work, sparks, flames or other sources of ignition.
• Valves must be opened slowly to prevent damage to the regulator. Valves must not be opened more than 1 ½ turns. If wrench is required it must stay in position in case of emergency for a quick shut off. Manifold or coupled cylinders must have a wrench available for immediate use. Do not place objects on top of cylinders, or damage may occur to the safety device or interfere with the quick closing of the valve.
• Cylinders must be closed and the gas released from the regulator before removing the regulator.
If cylinders, valves, regulators, plug, or other safety devices are damaged, the must be tagged out of service and removed from the work area.
• Fuel gas hose and oxygen hose must be distinguishable from each other, and not be interchangeable. Contrast may be made by different colors or by surface characteristics distinguishable by the sense of touch
• Employees will inspect all hoses in use at the beginning of each work shift. Defective hoses will b e tagged and removed from service
• Hoses subjected to flashback, or which show severe wear or damage must be tested at twice that normal pressure from the hose, but not less than 300 p.s.i. if defective, hose must not be used.
• Hose couplings must be disconnected by rotary motion only.
• Hoses stored in boxes must be well ventilated.
• Hoses, cables, and other equipment must be kept clear of passageways, ladders and stairs
• Torches must be inspected at the beginning of each working shift for leaving shutoff valves, hose coupling, and tip connections. Defective torches may not be used.
• Clogged torch tip openings must be cleaned
• Torches may be lit by friction lighters or other approved devices only
Regulators and Gauges
• Pressure and regulators and related gauges, must work properly while in use
Oil and Grease Hazards
• Oxygen cylinders and fittings must be kept away from oil or grease. Cylinders and fittings must be kept free from oil or greasy substances and may not be handled with oily hands or gloves.
Oxygen must not be directed at oily surfaces, greasy clothes, or within a fuel oil or other storage tank or vessel.
Fire Protection
• Objects to be welded, cut or heated must be moved to a designated safe location. If the object cannot be easily moved all moveable fire hazards will be moved protected.
• If the object to be welded, cut or heated cannot be moved and if all the fire sparks, and slag, and to protect the immovable fire hazards from them
• Welding, cutting, or heating must not be performed in the presence of flammable paints, flammable compounds or heavy dust concentrations.
• Fire extinguishers must be immediately available in the work area, free of obstruction, and maintained for instant use.
• When normal fire prevention precautions are not sufficient for the welding, cutting, or heating operation supervisor will assign a fire watch. Sufficient amount of time msut be allowed after completion of work to ensure that the possibility of fire does not exist. The designated fire watch, must be trained in firefighting equipment.
• Gas supplies must be shut off during lunch breaks, overnight, or during shift breaks. Hoses and torches must be removed from confined spaces.
Cal Maritime employees required to become familiar with and understand the guidelines regarding welding and cutting operations. Designated welders and cutters must received annual training and must demonstrate their understanding of these guidelines to the supervisor.
Training should include:
1. Review of requirements listed in TITLE 8 CCR Sections 4794-4799,and articles 82,83,87,88,
& 90, also, OSHA 1910.252,
2. Use of Hot Work Permit System
3. Supervisor responsibilities
4. Fire watch responsibilities
5. Operator responsibilities
6. Contractors responsibilities
7. Documentation requirements
8. Respirator usage requirements
9. Fire Extinguisher training

The California State Department of Industrial Relations, Division of Occupational Safety & Health, CCR Title 8 Regulations references the following recommendations regarding personal protective equipment.

  • Title 8, California Code of Regulations, General Industry Safety Orders
  • Additional California Regulatory References:
    Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders
    Group 10. Gas Systems for Welding and Cutting
    • Article 80. Purpose and Definitions (Sections 4794 - 4795)
    • Article 81. General (Sections 4797 - 4799)
    • Article 82. Stationary Automatic Acetylene Generators (Sections 4803 - 4813)
    • Article 83. Portable Automatic Acetylene Generators (Sections 4815 - 4816)
    • Article 84. Calcium Carbide (Sections 4818 - 4819)
    • Article 85. Service Piping for All Gases (Sections 4821 - 4829)
    • Article 86. Manifolding of Cylinders to Headers for Shop Pipe Line Supply Systems and Pressure Reducing Regulators and Hose (Sections 4835 - 4840)
    • Article 87. Operating Procedure (Section 4845)
    • Article 88. Fire Prevention in Welding and Cutting Operations (Sections 4846 - 4848)
    Group 11. Electric Welding
    • Article 90. Electric Welding, Cutting and Heating (Sections 4850 - 4853)
    Subchapter 4. Construction Safety Orders
    Article 32. Oxygen, Acetylene, and Fuel Gas
    • §1739. Permit to Operate. (Repealed)
    • §1740. Storage and Use of Cylinders.
    • §1741. Pressure Regulators.
    • §1742. Hose and Connections.
    • §1743. General Precautions.



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