Level One

  1. Gives examples of observed behaviors or characteristics of the client or setting, but provides no insight into reasons behind the observation; observations tend to become dimensional and conventional or unassimilated repetitions of what has been heard in class or from peers.
  2. Tends to focus on just one aspect of the situation.
  3. Uses unsupported personal beliefs as frequently as "hard" evidence.
  4. May acknowledge differences of perspective but does not discriminate effectively among them.

Level Two

  1. Observations are fairly thorough and nuanced although they tend not to be placed in a broader context.
  2. Provides a cogent critique from one perspective, but fails to see the broader system in which the aspect is embedded and other factors that may make change difficult.
  3. Uses both unsupported personal belief and evidence but is beginning to be able to differentiate between them.
  4. Perceives legitimate differences of viewpoint.
  5. Demonstrates a beginning ability to interpret evidence.

Level Three

  1. Views things from multiple perspectives; able to observe multiple aspects of the situation and place them in context.
  2. Perceives conflicting goals within and among the individuals involved in a situation and recognizes that the differences can be evaluated.
  3. Recognizes that actions must be situationally dependent and understands many of the factors that affect their choice.
  4. Makes appropriate judgments based on reasoning and evidence.
  5. Has a reasonable assessment of the importance of the decisions facing clients and of his or her responsibility as a part of the clients' lives.

1 Steven Jones, . Introduction to Service-Learning Toolkit. Second Ed. Providence RI: Campus Compact, 2003. Print.